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Poland: EIRO CAR on the Changing Business Landscape in the Electricity sector and Industrial Relations in Europe

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

The energy sector in Poland is currently undergoing transformation, consisting mainly in its liberalisation and adaptation to market rules. The energy generation is and, according to the government’s energy strategies, will be based mainly on fossil fuels. The necessity to develop the RES subsector and the nuclear energy sector is also emphasised. The economic crisis and the restructuring processes do not have any significant impact on the level of employment and the industrial relations in the sector. The institution of social dialogue (both at the sector and at the company levels) is strong.

1. General background information on the energy policy in your country and employment trends

1.1 Please explain briefly the main governmental strategies/action in relation to the electricity production and energy source mix. In your answer, please include information on the following aspects, where possible:

  • Is there an outspoken policy or plan in your country for any kind of change towards an increase or decrease of electricity production with any of the different sources (coal, oil, gas, hydro, eolic, sun, etc.)?
  • Which is the targeted energy mix for the future (see material provided)? How, in which subsequent steps, such targets are expected to be met?
  • Are investments in networks (new connections, upgrade) envisaged? To what extent? With which specific goals?
  • What is the Government stance and what are the ongoing/envisaged action towards generation of electricity from the different broad groups of sources: nuclear /fossile /renewable energy?
  • What are the recent employment trends in the different subsectors of power generation according to the different broad groups of sources: nuclear/fossile/renewable energy? Please indicate development since 2005 with reference to generation, disribution, and sale separately.

In accordance with the Resolution of the Council of Ministers No. 202/2009 of 10 November 2009, a sector strategy has been adopted Energy Policy of Poland until 2030. This document sets the goals, the tasks and the actions for the energy sector in Poland. The main directions of the Polish energy policy include:

  • Improvement of energy efficiency,
  • Increased security of fuel and energy supply,
  • Diversification of the electricity generation structure by the introduction of nuclear energy,
  • Development of the use of renewable energy sources,
  • Development of competitive fuel and energy markets,
  • Reducing the impact of energy sector on the environment.

In the strategy, the necessity to build new capacity has been stated, in order to maintain the power surplus at the level of 15% of domestic demand. The dominating role of fossil fuels in energy generation has been retained. The changes introduced by the Policy concern mainly the nuclear energy generation and energy based on RES.

The detailed objectives concerning nuclear energy are included in the draft Programme for Polish nuclear energy sector, stating that the installed capacity in nuclear power plants by 2020 should reach 1000MW, and by 2030 4500MW. Currently there are no nuclear power plants in Poland.

The detailed objectives concerning energy generation based on RES have been included in the National Renewable Energy Action Plan adopted on 7 December 2010 by the Council of Ministers. The document assumes that the main factors in increasing the share of energy from renewable sources will be the increased use of biomass and wind generated electricity, especially thanks to the construction of off-shore wind farms. The defined target is to achieve at least 15% share of energy from renewable sources in the gross final energy structure by 2020. According to the data provided by the Energy Regulatory Office (URE), at the end of 2010 the share of energy from RES was 7.1% of gross final energy.

The Energy Policy of Poland includes also a statement on the necessity to develop transmission and distribution networks.

On the basis of the available data it is not possible to describe in detail either the size of the employment in the individual subsectors of power generation, or the employment trends, broken down into generation, distribution and sales. Generally, employment in the whole section of electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply has fallen from about 215 thousand at the end of 2005 to 155 thousand at the end of the first quarter of 2011. About 2/3 of all people working in this section are employed in the public sector.

1.2. Government policy for increase of the share of renewable resources according to the RES directive

  • Are any subsidies being granted for different types of RES for electricity providers? If yes, please provide briefly the details
  • Have subsidies for RES been cut recently? Was this a result of the crisis, of budget constraints, or the result of a policy revision (following a policy assessment, due to a disporportionate use of subsidies, etc.)? Please provide brief details.
  • Are there any other forms of support foreseen for promoting electricity generation of RES?
  • Please include any other aspects you consider to be worth mentioning regarding the state of play and the future prospects of RES in your country.

It should be emphasised that on 5 June 2011, 6 months passed from the date on which Poland, according to the Directive 2009/28/EC should have adopted a law on RES. So far such a law not only has not been passed, but no draft of such a law has been sent for public consultation. There is only the National Renewable Energy Action Plan described above.

Among the possible sources of support for RES development in Poland the following should be mentioned:

  • Funding from the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management (NFOŚiGW) and the Voivodship Funds for Environmental Protection and Water Management (WFOŚiGW): loans, credits, subsidies to interest-bearing loans and credits, grants.
  • EU funding – Operational Programme Infrastructure and Environment, within which a number of measures are undertaken to support energy generation from renewable sources.
  • European Economic Area EEA (Norwegian Financial Mechanism): grants for public and private sector institutions and for non-governmental organisations,
  • 16 Regional Operational Programmes for investment projects with value not exceeding 20 million PLN.
  • Credit line in the amount of 150 million Euro from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) under the Polish Sustainable Energy Efficiency Programme (PolSEFF).

1.3. Are there any studies and documents assessing the employment impact of energy policies and of prospective changes in the energy mix within the electricity sector? This could include, for instance,

  • Employment effects resulting from the unbundling of activities (production from distribution)
  • Employment effects (on quantity and quality of work) resulting from the possible shifts within the electricity production sector from traditional sources to RES
  • Employment effects from investments in infrastructure (renewal of grids, introduction of smart meter technology, district heating)
  • The need for retraining of workers or provision of new qualifications linked to the sector transformations
  • Possible spatial mobility of workers as a result of more decentralised production (linked both to new activities and to restructuring of existing ones)
  • Please include any other aspects you consider to be worth mentioning regarding prospective impacts on employment and industrial relations

There are few research studies about employment in the energy sector. In fact, only two can be listed. The first one is Foresight of personnel in modern economy prepared by the Polish Agency for Enterprise Development (PARP), which states that the expected changes in energy generation structure will cause some moderate reduction of employment in large-scale power plants. On the other hand, demand will appear for specialists in modern energy technologies, mainly modern coal-based and renewable-sources-based energy generation. There will also be demand for staff in the area of energy efficiency. Whereas the Analysis of development trends in the energy sector prepared by Polish Confederation of Private Employers Lewiatan (PKPP Lewiatan) claims that the demand for new skills related to RES and nuclear energy will not cause increase in employment, just the opposite – employment in the energy sector will gradually decrease.

1.4 To what extent are the social partners involved or consulted concerning the governmental energy policy, notably in relation to employment impacts? Has this happened on an ad-hoc basis or on a structural, permanent basis? Is there a special tripartite social dialogue body for such consultations? Did consultation take place at national level, at sector level, or at the initiative of individual companies? Please briefly provide details.

All the above mentioned government documents, and particularly the Energy Policy for Poland until 2030, have undergone the process of public consultations. As the Report on the results of public consultation of the draft Energy Policy of Poland until 2030 shows, the trade unions and employers organisations also took part in the consultations. The issues related to energy policy and the development of nuclear energy sector as well as energy generation based on renewable sources are also subjects of the meetings of the Tripartite Workforce for Energy Industry.

2. Composition, structure and employment trends for the different resources used for electricity production

2.1 Please give an overview of the current sectoral composition of electricity production in your country, by giving for each of these seven groups of energy sources, the NAME of the three largest producing, the NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES of these companies, and the public or private STATUS of the EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP with their employees.

For all companies listed, as a summary, please indicate:

  1. Total production and its distribution across different energy sources
  2. Total employment and its distribution across different energy sources
  3. Production plants and their respective energy source(s)
Electricity production

Electricity production with

TOP 3

PRODUCING COMPANIES

(the largest 3 in market share)

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

Reference year for the number of employees

Private/Public STATUS of WORKERS

FOSSIL FUELS

PGE Górnictwo i Energetyka Konwencjonalna

20,000

2010

public

Tauron Polska Energia Obszar Wytwarzania

6,256

2010

public

EDF Polska

No data available

-

private

NUCLEAR

No producing companies

     
       
       
HYDRO

No data

     
       
       
WIND

No data

     
       
       
BIOMASS

EDF Polska

No data

No data

private

Zespół Elektrowni Pątnów Adamów Konin

1,182

2009

public

GdF Suez

No data

No data

private

PHOTO-VOLTAIC

No data

     
       
       

PGE in 2010:

Total production: 52,7 TWh and its distribution across different energy sources: fossil fuels – 98.68%; biomass – 1.11%, wind and hydro – 0.21%.

Total employment: 45,000 and its distribution across different energy sources: fossil fuels – 20,000; more data not available.

Production plants and their respective energy source(s): 4 fossil fuelled power plants; 10 CHP; 29 hydroelectricity plants; 1 wind power.

Tauron Polska Energia in 2010

Total production: 21,3 TWh and its distribution across different energy sources: fossil fuels – 92.91%; biomass – 2.74%, hydro – 0.77%, others – 3.33%.

Total employment: 28,480 and its distribution across different energy sources: fossil fuels – 6,404; RES - 234.

Production plants and their respective energy source(s): 7 fossil fuelled power plants; 6 CHP; 35 hydroelectricity plants.

EDF Polska.

Total production: 14,5 TWh and its distribution across different energy sources: biomass in 2010 – 1,32 TWh (23% of total Polish electricity from biomass).

Total employment in 2009: 4,000 and its distribution across different energy sources: no data available.

Production plants and their respective energy source(s): 1 fossil fuelled power plants; 8 CHP (6 use also biomass).

Zespół Elektrowni Pątnów Adamów Konin:

Total production: 7,8 TWh and its distribution across different energy sources: fossil fuels – 94.28%; biomass in 2010 – 5.59%; others – 0.13%.

Total employment in 2009: 1182 and its distribution across different energy sources: no data available.

Production plants and their respective energy source(s): 3 fossil fuelled and biomass power plants.

GdF Suez:

Total production: 8,8 TWh and its distribution across different energy sources: fossil fuels – 91%; biomass in 2010 – 9%.

Total employment in: no data.

Production plants and their respective energy source(s): 1 plants.

2.2 Please provide an overview of the current oganisation of electricity distribution in your country. Is there a single distributing company/body? Are there multiple companies? At national or territorial level?

The companies operating in the area of electricity distribution were formed in their current shape, as a result of unbundling, in the middle of 2007, of the sale and the distribution operations of the then power distribution plants (Zakłady Energetyczne).

The distribution networks are managed by companies described as Distribution Network Operators (DNO). They are Vattenfall Distribution Poland and RWE Stoen Operator. The remaining DNOs are parts of the four energy groups operating in Poland: Polska Grupa Energetyczna (Polish Energy Group), Tauron, Enea and Energa. The distribution companies enjoy a territorial monopoly. Consumers have the right to choose the seller of the energy (TPA), they do not, however, have the right to choose the distribution company. 

2.3 Please indicate the NAME of the three largest distributing companies, the NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES of these companies, and the public or private STATUS of the EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP with their employees.

Distribution companies
 

TOP 3

DISTRIBUTING COMPANIES

(the largest 3 in market share)

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

Reference year for the number of employees

Private/Public STATUS of WORKERS

Distribution GRID

PGE Dystrybucja

12,500

2010

Public

Tauron Dystrybucja

12,520

2010

public

Enea Operator

5,600

2010

public

2.4. Where there any significant developments/changes since 2008 for a specific company or source of electricity production in numbers of employees or in their public/private status? Was this due to the current economic crisis? Were there any instances of unbundling or mergers? With what consequences in terms of employment and industrial relations?

The government Programme for the power sector of March 2006, determined today’s structure of the Polish power sector. In accordance with that programme, in the years 2006-2008 full consolidation of the state-owned energy companies took place (approx. 85% of the domestic energy sector capacity) into the four, vertically integrated energy groups existing today (PGE, Tauron, Enea, Energa), having the status of State Treasury owned companies. The four energy groups hold a strong position on the domestic market - in 2008 they shared among themselves about 62% of the power generation market and approx. 83% of electricity sales market.

The Polish power sector is still at the transition stage. The consolidated groups are carrying out the processes of internal restructuring and integration, consisting primarily in separating internal divisions for distribution, renewable energy, nuclear energy; they are also gradually privatised. According to the government strategy, the PGE Group is going to remain in the hands of the State Treasury, that is, the state is going to hold on to the majority share in the group, and in the Tauron Group, the state is going to retain the package of shares that would give it the corporate governance of the company. Since November 2008 the groups have been gradually entering the stock exchange.

Right now, the processes of privatisation of the Enea and Energa Groups are in progress; they started in 2010.

The processes described above have not had any significant impact on the size of employment. As a result of the collective bargaining described below and the strong position of trade unions, privatisations of individual smaller power plants have not affected the size of employment or the industrial relations in any significant way.

3. Industrial relations in the electricity sector: Actors

3.1 Please provide details on the membership in the electricity sector and membership of the top 3 producing and distributing companies in employer’s organisation (see questions 2.1-2.3 above). Please provide information on the name of the trade unions organising in this subsector and the level of their membership, or otherwise provide overall data but please include indications on differences in membership densities across subsectors.

Trade union representation and Membership to employers’ organisation

Electricity production with

TOP 3

PRODUCING COMPANIES

(largest 3 in market share)

Membership to employers organisation

(indicate the name of the relevant employers organisation)

Trade union presence per sub-sector

(indicate the name of trade union(s) and the level of their membership in this subsector companies)

FOSSIL FUELS

PGE Górnictwo i Energetyka Konwencjonalna

Federacja Związków Pracodawców Energetyki Polskiej (The Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions)

NSZZ „Solidarność”

Ogólnopolskie Porozumienie Związków Zawodowych (The All Poland Alliance of Trade Unions)

Forum Związków Zawodowych (Trade Unions Forum)

Tauron Polska Energia Obszar Wytwarzania

Federacja Związków Pracodawców Energetyki Polskiej (The Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions)

EDF Polska

Federacja Związków Pracodawców Energetyki Polskiej (The Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions)

NUCLEAR

No producing companies

   
   
   
HYDRO

No data

   
   
   
WIND

No data

   
   
   
BIOMASS

EDF Polska

Federacja Związków Pracodawców Energetyki Polskiej (The Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions)

NSZZ „Solidarność”

Ogólnopolskie Porozumienie Związków Zawodowych (The All Poland Alliance of Trade Unions)

Forum Związków Zawodowych (Trade Unions Forum)

Zespół Elektrowni Pątnów Adamów Konin

Federacja Związków Pracodawców Energetyki Polskiej (The Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions)

GdF Suez

Federacja Związków Pracodawców Energetyki Polskiej (The Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions)

PHOTO-VOLTAIC

No data

   
   
   
And in the distributing companies

Distribution GRID

companies

PGE Dystrybucja

Federacja Związków Pracodawców Energetyki Polskiej (The Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions)

NSZZ „Solidarność”

Ogólnopolskie Porozumienie Związków Zawodowych (The All Poland Alliance of Trade Unions)

Forum Związków Zawodowych (Trade Unions Forum)

Tauron Dystrybucja

Federacja Związków Pracodawców Energetyki Polskiej (The Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions)

Enea Operator

Federacja Związków Pracodawców Energetyki Polskiej (The Federation of Polish Power Industry Employer Unions)

3.2 To what extent are employees in the different subsectors (fossil/nuclear/RES) covered by trade union representation? Has there been any impact of the crisis on trade union representation?

Generally there is no data on the levels of trade union membership in individual sectors. It should, however, be noted that the energy sector is the second one (after mining) in terms of the level of trade union membership. In the whole sector it reaches the level of about 50%. In the 3 big energy groups it reaches: in Tauron – 70%, in Energa – 68%, PGE – 59%.

3.3 Have there been major reorganisations/splits/mergers of trade unions or employers organisations in the sector during the last five years?

There have not been any reorganisations/splits/mergers of trade unions or employers organisations in the sector during the last five years.

3.4. Have new actors (trade unions or employers organisations) been founded in recent years, especially in the newly evolving RES industries? Or is the industry covered by established actors?

No new actors in the sector have been founded in recent years.

3.5. Have the established sectoral actors (both trade unions and employer organisations) started any initiative to extend their representation to the new emerging parts of the sector? Please describe such initiatives and their results so far.

No such actions.

4. Role of collective bargaining and social dialogue

4.1 Please provide information on the structure of collective bargaining in the electricity sector. Please, briefly mention the main characteristics of collective bargaining:

  • At what level are collective agreements within the subsectors of the electricity sector (traditional providers, newly emerging providers) concluded (company, sectoral level and/or inter-sectoral level)? Is there a difference between the producers and the distributors?
  • Estimate the coverage rate of collective bargaining in terms of companies and employees: are there any differences in coverage across different subsectors of electricity production?

In Poland there are two inter-company collective agreements:

  • Inter-Company Collective Labour Agreement for the Employees of the Energy Industry, covering the employees of distribution companies, power plants, combined heat and power plants, power distribution and sales companies and other companies connected with the energy sector;Inter-company Collective Labour Agreement for the Employees of Energy Sector Related Companies.

These agreements define the minimum terms and conditions for employment relations between employees and the employers who belong to employers’ organisations (Organisation of Energy Sector Employers, Organisation of Power Plants Employers, Organisation of Combined Heat and Power Plants Employers, Organisation of Energy Sector Related Employers).

Both collective agreements regulate the following issues:

  • Conditions for remuneration and granting remuneration allowances and other benefits;
  • Principles for determining conditions for labour health and safety at workplace;
  • Mutual obligations of the parties to the agreement concerning the principles and forms of cooperation in implementing the Agreement;
  • Standards and principles of working time organisation.

An inter-company collective labour agreement and/or company collective agreements are in place in most of the big capital groups (e.g. Tauron, PGE, Energa, Enea, Vattenfall) and companies of the energy sector.

Some companies of the energy sector also enter into company collective agreements. Another form of social dialogue at the company level is the so called social agreement between employers and trade unions. Such agreements grant additional rights to employees and trade unions. The company-level regulations may be both, an alternative to inter-company collective agreements or they may provide additional, wider guarantees for employees.

4.2 Please comment on the most recent collective agreements reached at sector level and at company level. Please address the following topics:

Pay and working time: level and trends relative to the national average and significant differences across subsectors of the electricity industry.

On the 16th of July 2010, an agreement was signed between PGE and the trade unions operating in power plants, CHP plants and heat distribution plants from the Conventional Energy Generation category. Under the agreement, employees received a guarantee of retaining their employee rights and other benefits they had been entitled to on the basis of the contracts and agreements in force up until then. It is the last of the guarantee providing agreements signed as a result of the social dialogue on the consolidation of the PGE Group. Similar guarantee providing agreements had been signed earlier with the trade unions operating in the mines, the distribution companies and the retail companies of the PGE Capital Group.

In September 2009 RWE Polska was the first power sector company in Poland to decide, together with the trade unions, to leave the Inter-Company Collective Labour Agreement for the sake of their own Company Collective Labour Agreement. The new provisions reward and support the development of the most involved employees, simplify the remuneration system. The provisions of the agreement were created, inter alia, on the basis of employees surveys, carried out regularly at RWE. As part of the agreement, a system of periodic staff appraisals has been introduced which generates employees’ appraisals with respect to their qualifications and performance and the full appraisal provides the basis for awarding bonuses. The agreement ensures the retaining of the existing level of employment and the job stability. It also retains the medical care for the employees and the Company Social Fund. The agreement also guarantees that employees are represented in the management board and in the supervisory board.

4.3. Cooperation between the social partners and government

  • Have the government started any social dialogue or social concentration in the electricity sector since 2008? Please illustrate the features and results of any such initiatives.
  • Have bipartite and/or tripartite bodies dealing with specific issues of the electricity industry been created since 2008?
  • Have there been since 2008 any joint initiatives of cooperation between social partners to influence or steer the energy policy developed by the government in your country? Or have such initiatives been taken separately by certain social partner organisations?
  • Have the social partners been involved in the making of the national action plan to reach the 2020 target, or in issues aiming to secure the supply of enough electricity?

As part of the Department of Social Dialogue and Partnership (Ministry of Labour and Social Policy ) at the Tripartite Commission, the Tripartite Workforce for Energy Industry operates. The Workforce has been operating since May 1998. Within the Workforce there are three working teams. The aim of the Workforce is to continue the tripartite sectoral dialogue for reconciliation of the parties’ interests during the process of working out positions on issues important from the point of view of the state policy vis a vis the energy sector and the interests of employees and employers.

The Tripartite Workforce for Energy Industry has been dealing with issues such as restructuring of the energy sector and the consolidation processes in the energy groups; monitoring these processes; developing the conditions for the social dialogue in the companies or plants and monitoring this dialogue; expressing opinions on the state energy policy.

After 2008, one of the most important issues in the work of the Workforce has been the programme, Energy Policy of Poland until 2020. The social partners have developed “The adjustment proposals for the outline of the energy policy of Poland until 2020 in the context of social consequences for employees”.

 According to the trade unions, the social dialogue in the energy sector is not carried out according to the agreed rules, that is to say, the position of the trade unions regarding the changes implemented in the energy sector (especially at the level of individual companies) is often disregarded. Trade union representatives also voice some objections as to the social dialogue concerning RES – they claim that there is no social dialogue in this area.

Differences can also be noticed between public and private sector employers. Representatives of private employers are less willing to follow all the arrangements agreed by the Tripartite Workforce for Energy Industry. The private employers are more willing to arrive at agreements with employees at the level of individual companies and not at the sector level.

4.4. Please provide information about the views of the trade unions and employer organisations on the main changes regarding employment and working conditions affecting the sector since 2008 and especially on the impact of the current crisis (for instance on employment trends, quality of jobs, working hours, wages, fixed-term employment, part-time, temporary agency work, participation in training, outsourcing, subcontracting etc.).

On the basis of the meetings minutes and other documents (positions, statements, etc.), which are the results of the work of the Tripartite Workforce for Energy Industry, it may be shown that the discussion between social partners concerns less the issue of the economic crisis, and more the restructuring of the energy sector which began in 2006. In March 2006, the Cabinet adopted the “Programme for the Power Sector”. The government programme envisaged the process of consolidation of the state-owned energy companies (approx. 85% of the capacity of the domestic power sector) into the today’s four, vertically integrated energy groups (PGE, Tauron, Energa, Enea). These four large energy groups have undergone restructuring and consolidation. And it is these processes that are the main subjects of interest for the social partners in the social dialogue.

According to trade unions, social dialogue in the power sector (and especially in the energy groups) is just ostensible – the decisions resulting from the dialogue and the labour law are violated. The trade union activists have the strongest objections against the manner in which the social dialogue works at the company level. Their representatives claim that the opinion of the employees’ side on the shape of the restructuring is marginalised by the employers. The trade unions are mainly interested in pay issues. Every year pay disputes appear in individual companies as trade unions demand pay rises by at least the level equalling the inflation. Trade union activists claim that the employers withhold the pay rises and at the same time raise the wages paid to managers in the companies’ management boards. According to trade unions, pay increases should depend on the financial situation of the company and on performance.

Trade unions also claim that the employers breach the provisions of the inter-company collective labour agreement, the company collective agreements and the social agreements.

Whereas the employers’ representatives emphasise that the energy sector employees enjoy a number of privileges and their bargaining power often makes it impossible to carry out the restructuring which would be beneficial for a company. The employers also claim that jobs reduction is necessary because there is excessive employment in the sector. The employers also refer to the economic crisis which forces them to economise because of the economic slowdown.

The employers have a positive attitude towards implementing new solutions aiming at applying flexible working time, for instance by using the year as the reference period for working time banking. The trade unions have a negative opinion about such solutions.

5. Commentary

The energy sector in Poland is still, in great majority, owned by the State Treasury, but since 2006 the sector has been undergoing restructuring, connected with the liberalisation and adjustment to market rules of energy generation and distribution. In 2010 the privatisation process began of two big energy groups. These processes will have impact on the structure of the whole energy sector. Right now, a dynamic process can be seen of development of RES-based power generation, which is still dispersed and has a very small share in energy generation in Poland (approx. 7% of total production).The government energy programmes announce the creation of the nuclear energy subsector by 2020.

The level of employment in the sector remains stable – neither the crisis nor the restructuring seem to affect it. The main energy groups focus rather on the, so called, natural processes of leaving employment and on implementing programmes for voluntary job leaving and not on mass lay-offs. This strategy is caused, among other things, by the relatively high level of trade union membership in the sector and the relatively well institutionalised social dialogue.

Marta Trawinska, Institute of Public Affairs

Page last updated: 15 November, 2012
About this document
  • ID: PL1202029Q
  • Author: Marta Trawinska
  • Institution: Institute of Public Affairs
  • Country: Poland
  • Language: EN
  • Publication date: 15-11-2012