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Sweden: EIRO CAR on the Changing Business Landscape in the Electricity sector and Industrial Relations in Europe

Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.

The Swedish electricity sector is dominated by three companies, Vattenfall, E.ON and Fortum, and two energy sources, hydro power and nuclear power. Wind power and biofuels are expanding rapidly as sources of energy but still constitute a small part of the energy mix. The Swedish government has chosen a market driven and energy sources neutral approach in dealing with the Europe 2020 RES targets. This approach has been well received by the social partners. The structure of industrial relations has been largely unaffected by the crisis and by the changing business landscape in the electricity sector so far.

1. General background information on the energy policy in your country and employment trends

1.1. Please explain briefly the main governmental strategies/action in relation to the electricity production and energy source mix. In your answer, please include information on the following aspects, where possible:

  • Is there an outspoken policy or plan in your country for any kind of change towards an increase or decrease of electricity production with any of the different sources (coal, oil, gas, hydro, eolic, sun, etc.)?
  • Which is the targeted energy mix for the future (see material provided)? How, in which subsequent steps, such targets are expected to be met?
  • Are investments in networks (new connections, upgrade) envisaged? To what extent? With which specific goals?
  • What is the Government stance and what are the ongoing/envisaged action towards generation of electricity from the different broad groups of sources: nuclear /fossile /renewable energy?
  • What are the recent employment trends in the different subsectors of power generation according to the different broad groups of sources: nuclear/fossile/renewable energy? Please indicate development since 2005 with reference to generation, disribution, and sale separately.

In proposition (2008/09:163) and The Swedish National Action Plan for the promotion of the use of renewable energy, the Swedish government put forward its vision for the energy and electricity production in Sweden. In line with the ambition of the Europe 2020 strategy and in accordance with Directive (2009/28/EC) and the Commission (Decision of 30.06.2009) the main target is to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The target rates for energy production from renewable sources are set to 50% by 2020 or an increase by 25 TWh from the 2002 levels. By 2050 the government envisions a society with 0 net greenhouse emissions.

Included in proposition (2008/09:163) is a national planning framework for wind power setting the production target for 2020 to 30 TWh (10 TWh on land and 20 TWh at sea). The potential to expand the largest single electricity production source in Sweden, Hydroelectric power, is limited as it has reached its maximum capacity with around 1800 power facilities in operation. Nuclear power is the second largest electricity production source in Sweden. In June 2010 the Swedish parliament changed the law regulating the nuclear power enabling old power plants to be replaced by new ones as they are closed down (prop. 2009/10:172). Nuclear power is hence seen as a continuous vital part of the Swedish energy mix for the foreseeable future. However, according to the trade organisation for the electricity sector, Swedenergy (Svensk Energi), no new reactors will be prospected until a broad political majority is formed. Vattenfall state that they have intensified work to analyse conditions for new nuclear reactors.

According to Svenska Kraftnät, the Swedish electricity grid has entered an expansion phase. SEK 30 billion is allocated over a ten year period to accommodate new production, notably connecting the expanding of wind power sector, and upgrade capacity, specifically to cater for electrical power increase in Nuclear power reactors. The single largest project, the Southwest link (Sydvästlänken), totals SEK 7,2 billion and 180 km power cable. Such projects will result in increased demand for work among entrepreneurs, sub-entrepreneurs, consultancies and not least in Svenska Kraftnät itself. Today, before constructions have started, Svensk Kraftnät already have 130 full-time consultants working on the project.

Regarding employment trends no significant changes can be noted since 2005 except a temporary decrease during the financial crisis years of 2007-2009, especially in the power station sector.

Graph 1: Private sector employment for subsectors (NAC codes)

Graph 1: Private sector employment for subsectors (NAC codes)

Source: Company Database, (FDB), (Statistics Sweden, SCB)

With regards to sale, Swedenergy notes that margins on sale of electricity are very small and no significant employment changes can be noted except for a tendency for Electricity companies to hire specialised sale companies to cater for their sales.

No cuts in subsidies can be noted due to the crisis.

1.2. Government policy for increase of the share of renewable resources according to the RES directive

  • Are any subsidies being granted for different types of RES for electricity providers? If yes, please provide briefly the details
  • Have subsidies for RES been cut recently? Was this a result of the crisis, of budget constraints, or the result of a policy revision (following a policy assessment, due to a disporportionate use of subsidies, etc.)? Please provide brief details.
  • Are there any other forms of support foreseen for promoting electricity generation of RES?
  • Please include any other aspects you consider to be worth mentioning regarding the state of play and the future prospects of RES in your country.

On 1 May 2003 the government introduced an electricity certificate scheme aimed to expand electricity generation from renewable energy sources in Sweden. The aid scheme is technology-neutral in its design targeting all RES. Successful applicants are entitled to one electricity certificate unit per MWh produced which can be sold generating additional income from their electricity production. Demand for certificates is created by all electricity suppliers, and some users, as they are required to buy certificates corresponding to a proportion of their use or sales. Through this market-based approach the scheme stimulates the expansion of electricity generation from renewable sources. A certificate is valid for fifteen years up until the end of 2035. According to Swedenergy, 70% of certificates have been allocated to bio energy, 20% to wind power and 10% to hydro power.

In addition to the generic and technology-neutral aid scheme three support schemes specifically targeting wind power and solar power has also been introduced (National Action Strategy).

  1. The first scheme provides support for planning initiatives for wind power. Under normal circumstances aid is provided at 50% of the total cost of the planning initiative.
  2. The second scheme aid wind pilot projects in the startup phase of constructing wind power facilities. SEK 350 million was allocated for the 2003-2007 and 2008-2012 respectively.
  3. The third scheme is the governmental support scheme for solar photovoltaic cells which is valid from 1 July 2009 until 31 December 2011 and applies to all types of solar photovoltaic cell systems connected to electricity grids providing financial support for 55-60% of the total investment cost. Maximum amount of aid per building is capped to SEK 2 million.

1.3. Are there any studies and documents assessing the employment impact of energy policies and of prospective changes in the energy mix within the electricity sector? This could include, for instance,

  • Employment effects resulting from the unbundling of activities (production from distribution)
  • Employment effects (on quantity and quality of work) resulting from the possible shifts within the electricity production sector from traditional sources to RES
  • Employment effects from investments in infrastructure (renewal of grids, introduction of smart meter technology, district heating)
  • The need for retraining of workers or provision of new qualifications linked to the sector transformations
  • Possible spatial mobility of workers as a result of more decentralised production (linked both to new activities and to restructuring of existing ones)
  • Please include any other aspects you consider to be worth mentioning regarding prospective impacts on employment and industrial relations

According to a study from the Region of Västra Götaland total employment in Sweden connected to wind power is estimated to 6,000-10,000 full time employments yearly whereof 3,400 in prospecting and construction, 1,000 in maintenance and 1,600 with component suppliers.

A survey by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) conducted 2008 estimated direct employment from wind energy companies in Sweden to 2000. Since 2008 the wind industry has grown significantly resulting in increased employment, although no detailed sector-specific exist. No further studies, documents or data is available.

1.4 To what extent are the social partners involved or consulted concerning the governmental energy policy, notably in relation to employment impacts? Has this happened on an ad-hoc basis or on a structural, permanent basis? Is there a special tripartite social dialogue body for such consultations? Did consultation take place at national level, at sector level, or at the initiative of individual companies? Please briefly provide details.

Contacts between the government, trade unions and employers’ organisations are mainly channelled through the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Näringsliv) and the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen, LO). Occasionally government propositions are circulated for comments among the social partners but trade unions interviewed are not aware of any such initiative regarding employment impact.

No explicit tripartite body for social dialogue is in place, however The Swedish trade union SEKO has occasionally been invited to an energy council (energisamråd) that gathers energy companies and the government approximately twice a year to discuss energy related matters.

2. Composition, structure and employment trends for the different resources used for electricity production

2.1 Please give an overview of the current sectoral composition of electricity production in your country, by giving for each of these seven groups of energy sources, the NAME of the three largest producing, the NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES of these companies, and the public or private STATUS of the EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP with their employees.

For all companies listed, as a summary, please indicate:

  1. Total production and its distribution across different energy sources
  2. Total employment and its distribution across different energy sources
  3. Production plants and their respective energy source(s)

The Swedish electricity production is based on two main sources, hydro power and nuclear power, making it largely free from CO2 emissions. Thanks to the capacity of hydro power, renewable energy sources make up more than 50% of total energy sources including the biofuel’s share of combined heat and power (CHP).

Table 1: Swedish electricity supply 2010, GWh, by type of power plant.

Energy Source

Net production GWh

Percentage

Nuclear

55,626

38,3%

Wind

3,502

2,4%

Hydro

67,269

46,3%

Conventional thermal power (CHP)

18,896

13,0%

Total

145,293

100,0%

Source: El-, gas- och fjärrvärmeförsörjningen 2010 (SCB)

The Swedish electricity sector is dominated by three companies, Vattenfall, E.ON and Fortum. Vattenfall, the biggest producer, is owned by the Swedish state but technically run as a private shareholding company. Total employment in these companies is indicated below, but it is not possible to break it up across different energy sources.

Electricity production

Electricity production with

TOP 3

PRODUCING COMPANIES

(the largest 3 in market share)

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

Reference year for the number of employees

Private/Public STATUS of WORKERS

FOSSIL FUELS (CHP)

Göteborg Energi

Total 1198

2010

Private

E.ON

Total approx. 4000

2010

Private

Fortum

Total 2257

2010

Private

NUCLEAR

Vattenfall

Total 9369

2010

Private

E.ON

     

Fortum

     
HYDRO

Vattenfall

     

E.ON

     

Fortum

     
WIND

Vattenfall

     

Havsnäs Vindkraft AB

0 employees, operations run by various companies through Nordisk Vindkraft

2010

Private

Arise Windpower

35

2010

Private

BIOMASS

Vattenfall

     

Fortum

     

Mälarenergi

Total 587 (207 in CHP Prod.)

2010

Private

PHOTO-VOLTAIC

No significant producers. The biggest facilities (around 150 kW in effect capacity) are located on top of public housing.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total production and its distribution across different energy sources for listed companies are as follow:

Companies

FOSSIL FUELS

NUCLEAR

HYDRO

WIND

BIOMASS

PHOTO-VOLTAIC

TOTAL PRODUCTION

Vattenfall

n/a

43,66

31,41

0,76

0,76

0,00

76,60

E.ON

n/a

15,5

8,1

n/a

n/a

0

28,2

Fortum

n/a

n/a

14,67

n/a

n/a

0

26,7

Mälarenergi

n/a

0

0,132

0

0,714

0

1,03

Arise Windpower

0

0

0

0,32

0

0

0,32

Havsnäs Vindkraft AB

0

0

0

0,23

0

0

0,23

Totalt

2,87

61,62

65,92

1,43

11,46

0

143,3

Sweden has the following major electricity production plants across their respective energy source and owner:

Company

Production Plant

Energy Source

Vattenfall

Forsmark

Nuclear

Vattenfall (70%) E.ON (30%)

Ringhals

Nuclear

E.ON (55%) Fortum (45%)

Oskarshamn

Nuclear

Vattenfall

Harsprånget (Lule älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Stornorrfors (Ume älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Porjus (Lule älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Messaure (Lule älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Letsi (Lule älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Ligga (Lule älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Juktan (Ume älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Vietas (Lule älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Ritsem (Lule älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Kilforsen (Ångermanälven)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Porsi (Lule älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Trollhättan (Göta älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Seitevare (Lule älv)

Hydro

Vattenfall

Laxede (Lule älv)

Hydro

E.ON

Öresundsverket

Natural Gas (CHP)

Göteborg Energi

Rya Kraftvärmeverk

Natural Gas (CHP)

Vattenfall

Lillgrund 

Wind

Vattenfall

Stor­Rotliden

Wind

Umeå Energi

Hörnefors 

Wind

2.2 Please provide an overview of the current organisation of electricity distribution in your country. Is there a single distributing company/body? Are there multiple companies? At national or territorial level?

The Swedish electricity distribution grid is divided into three levels: the national grid, the regional grid and the local grid. At the national level the grid (stamnätet) is owned, administered and operated by the state-owned public utility Swedish national grid (Svenska Kraftnät, SVK). The regional grid is operated by five different companies and the local grid by approximately 170 different companies. The three biggest electricity producers, Fortum, E.ON, Vattenfall, are also the three largest distribution companies at the regional and local level.

2.3 Please indicate the NAME of the three largest distributing companies, the NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES of these companies, and the public or private STATUS of the EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP with their employees.

Distribution companies
 

TOP 3

DISTRIBUTING COMPANIES

(the largest 3 in market share)

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

Reference year for the number of employees

Private/Public STATUS of WORKERS

Distribution GRID

Vattenfall

Total 9369

2010

Private

E.ON

Total approx. 4000

2010

Private

Fortum

Total 2257

2010

Private

2.4. Where there any significant developments/changes since 2008 for a specific company or source of electricity production in numbers of employees or in their public/private status? Was this due to the current economic crisis? Were there any instances of unbundling or mergers? With what consequences in terms of employment and industrial relations?

As can be seen from the graph below, the expansion trend for the wind power sector is stable. As indicated in question 1.3 this has resulted in a significant growth of jobs directly or indirectly related to wind power industry. Exact figures are not available.

Wind-power generation 1993-2010

Wind-power generation 1993-2010

Source: SCB

In 2009 E.ON moved their electricity trading branch from Malmö in Sweden to Düsseldorf in Germany. Of the 100 affected workers, 70 followed the move to Düsseldorf and the majority of the other 30 workers stayed with E.ON Sweden, according to Montel Powernews,

3. Industrial relations in the electricity sector: Actors

4. Please provide details on the membership in the electricity sector and membership of the top 3 producing and distributing companies in employer’s organisation (see questions 2.1-2.3 above). Please provide information on the name of the trade unions organising in this subsector and the level of their membership, or otherwise provide overall data but please include indications on differences in membership densities across subsectors.

The Swedish electricity sector has three employers’ associations. The largest, EnergiFöretagens Arbetsgivareförening (EFA), organise private sector companies including the three biggest electricity producers. The Municipality Companies' Cooperative Organisation (Kommunala Företagens Samorganisation, KFS) and Arbetsgivarförbundet Pacta (Pacta) both represent municipal and state-owned companies.

Trade union memberships are spread across seven different unions along the division between blue collar and white collar workers, and the division between publicly owned and privately owned companies. The Swedish Electricians Union (Svenska Elektrikerförbundet, SEF) is the largest blue collar union in the private electricity sector. The trade union for professionals in the private sector (Unionen) is biggest union for white collar workers in the private electricity sector.

There exist no differences in membership to employers’ organisations or trade unions based on source of electricity production per se but since the three dominant companies own all nuclear reactors all employees in the nuclear sector are organised with EFA’s trade union counterparts (see below)

Trade union representation and Membership to employers’ organisation
FOSSIL FUELS

Göteborg Energi

The Municipality Companies' Cooperative Organisation (Kommunala Företagens Samorganisation, KFS)

The Swedish Municipal Workers’ Union (Kommunal)

The Union of Service and Communication Employees,(SEKO)

Vision (Vision) previously SKTF

The Confederation of Executives and Managerial Staff (Ledarna)

the Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers (Sveriges Ingenjörer)

E.ON

EnergiFöretagens Arbetsgivareförening (EFA)

The Swedish Electricians Union (Svenska Elektrikerförbundet, SEF)

The Union of Service and Communication Employees,(SEKO)

the trade union for professionals in the private sector (Unionen)

The Confederation of Executives and Managerial Staff (Ledarna)

the Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers (Sveriges Ingenjörer)

Fortum

NUCLEAR

Vattenfall

E.ON

Fortum

HYDRO

Vattenfall

E.ON

Fortum

WIND

Vattenfall

Arise Windpower

No membership

No presence

Havsnäs Vindkraft AB

No employees

No employees

BIOMASS

Vattenfall

   

Fortum

   

Mälarenergi

Same as Göteborg Energi

Same as Göteborg Energi

PHOTO-VOLTAIC

No significant producers. The biggest facilities (around 150 kW in effect capacity) are located on top of public housing.

-

-

And in the distributing companies

Distribution GRID

companies

Vattenfall

EnergiFöretagens Arbetsgivareförening (EFA)

See above

E.ON

Fortum

3.2 To what extent are employees in the different subsectors (fossil/nuclear/RES) covered by trade union representation? Has there been any impact of the crisis on trade union representation?

In Sweden employees are covered by trade union representation regardless of sector or subsector. No significant impact of the crisis on trade union representation has been noted by the trade union representatives interviewed. No statistical data is available on the matter. However there has been a decrease in union density due to the government’s amendments of the fees to the unemployment funds in January 2007 (SE0806029I).

The Swedish Electricians Union (Svenska Elektrikerförbundet, SEF) reports a trade union coverage of 95% with a union membership density at around 89%. SEKO approximates union membership density for the electricity sector to around 90%.

3.3 Have there been major reorganisations/splits/mergers of trade unions or employers organisations in the sector during the last five years?

The largest trade union for white collar workers, Unionen, both in overall numbers and in the electricity sector, was founded on 1 January 2008, through a merger between the Union of White-collar Workers in Industry (Sif) and the Salaried Employees’ Union (HTF)

3.4. Have new actors (trade unions or employers organisations) been founded in recent years, especially in the newly evolving RES industries? Or is the industry covered by established actors?

No, the sector is covered by established actors.

3.5. Have the established sectoral actors (both trade unions and employer organisations) started any initiative to extend their representation to the new emerging parts of the sector? Please describe such initiatives and their results so far.

SEKO reports that workers in windmill producing factories that are represented by the Union of Metalworkers (IF Metall) have been contacted through their workplace in an effort to have them change trade union membership. There has been some disagreements over sector attachment of workers in windmill manufacturing. However, according to SEF most of the workers employed with constructing wind power facilities in Sweden come from abroad, notably Denmark and Germany.

4. Role of collective bargaining and social dialogue

4.1 Please provide information on the structure of collective bargaining in the electricity sector. Please, briefly mention the main characteristics of collective bargaining:

  • At what level are collective agreements within the subsectors of the electricity sector (traditional providers, newly emerging providers) concluded (company, sectoral level and/or inter-sectoral level)? Is there a difference between the producers and the distributors?
  • Estimate the coverage rate of collective bargaining in terms of companies and employees: are there any differences in coverage across different subsectors of electricity production?

The structure of collective bargaining in the Swedish electricity sector follows the general pattern of Swedish collective bargaining with indicative sectorial agreements that set the parameters for negotiations at local and company level. A major difference exists between agreements concerning blue collar and white collar workers. Blue collar collective agreements feature wage negotiations which is not the case for white collar agreements. Wages for white collar workers are negotiated locally only and should take company specific factors, e.g. company profit margins, into consideration.

Three main collective agreements are negotiated. Kraftverksavtalet is the largest agreement for blue collar workers and organise mainly blue collar workers in the private sector. Branschavtalet Energi is the general agreement for mainly white collar workers in the private sector. The third agreement, branschavtal energi, organise both blue collar and white collar workers in the public sector, i.e. both municipal and state workers.

An additional group of workers in the sector, working in municipal companies, adhere to the Swedish Municipal Workers’ Union agreement which is a non-sector specific agreement. These companies are represented by another employers’ association, Pacta, which is not itself directly involved in collective bargaining.

The Swedish Electricians Union (Svenska Elektrikerförbundet, SEF) reports a trade union coverage of 95% for employees.

Coverage for companies is not mandatory but all significant producers apply collective agreements or application agreements. There is no difference between producers and distributors of electricity with regards to collective bargaining.

4.2 Please comment on the most recent collective agreements reached at sector level and at company level. Please address the following topics:

  • Pay and working time: level and trends relative to the national average and significant differences across subsectors of the electricity industry.

The three main collective agreements were struck in March and April 2010 and are valid from 1 April 2010 to 31 March 2012. The main agreement for blue collar workers in the private sector, Kraftverksavtalet 2010-2012, yielded salary increases of 3.62% over a two-year period. The agreement further featured a 4 hour working time reduction yearly, an additional month of paid parental leave and free trips home every two weeks during work displacement of more than 350 km. The agreement follows the general pay determination suggested by the industry agreement, but features higher wages than the agreement for state and municipal workers. According to the EFA, private workers in the electricity sector generally have higher wages, partly because they have less working hours reduction than the public workers, partly because private sector companies to a larger extent are located in major city areas where wage levels are higher.

Since 2008 the trend for workers employed in the private sector and the private electricity sector can be seen in the graph below. The trend suggest higher wage increases for blue collar workers employed in the private electricity sector compared to the other three categories.

Graph 2: Wage index for blue and white collar workers employed in the private electricity sector (2008-2011)

Graph 2: Wage index for blue and white collar workers employed in the private electricity sector (2008-2011)

Source: Arbetskostnadsindex ( AKI, SCB)

4.3. Cooperation between the social partners and government

  • Have the government started any social dialogue or social concentration in the electricity sector since 2008? Please illustrate the features and results of any such initiatives.
  • Have bipartite and/or tripartite bodies dealing with specific issues of the electricity industry been created since 2008?
  • Have there been since 2008 any joint initiatives of cooperation between social partners to influence or steer the energy policy developed by the government in your country? Or have such initiatives been taken separately by certain social partner organisations?
  • Have the social partners been involved in the making of the national action plan to reach the 2020 target, or in issues aiming to secure the supply of enough electricity?

Tripartite social dialogue is rare in Sweden as social partners, particularly trade unions, are generally protective of their independence with regards to collective bargaining. The idea of self-regulation is strong in Sweden. As a consequence there is no specific body dealing with these issues.

On the other hand, the tradition of consulting relevant actors and stakeholders when forming governmental policy is strong in Sweden. As previously stated in question 1.4, the government occasionally ask the social partners to comment on circulated policies. This is mainly channelled through the Confederation of Swedish Enterprise (Svenskt Näringsliv) and the Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen, LO).

No joint initiatives between the social partners have been initialised since 2008. Nor have they been specifically consulted concerning the making of the national 2020 action plan.

4.4. Please provide information about the views of the trade unions and employer organisations on the main changes regarding employment and working conditions affecting the sector since 2008 and especially on the impact of the current crisis (for instance on employment trends, quality of jobs, working hours, wages, fixed-term employment, part-time, temporary agency work, participation in training, outsourcing, subcontracting etc.).

A general trend of outsourcing, subcontracting, specialisation and compartmentalisation of work in the electricity sector has been noted by both trade unions and employers’ organisations since 2008. The trend includes increased use of staffing companies and consultancies executing temporary work. The three dominant companies, Vattenfall, E.ON and Fortum, are leading the way for this trend. Outsourcing has led to employment cuts, from 2100 to1600, among power plant installers since 2008, according to SEF, as fewer workers work with maintaining the electricity grid.

The expansion of the wind power sector has not affected the Swedish electricity sector proportionally to the overall investment cost, partly because wind power is less employment intensive in the electricity generation phase than other sources, partly because employment in the construction phase mainly affects other sectors.

In 2009 a new law was introduced which forced electricity customers to change to remotely scanned electricity meters. This rendered an entire group of workers redundant that previously had travelled and scanned the meters manually, according to KFS.

SEF reports that working conditions for electricity grid workers have worsened as many smaller distribution companies at the local level lack sufficient resources to maintain the grid which results in that workers have to use old equipment.

The crisis is not seen as a significant factor regarding employment or working conditions.

5. Commentary

As the Swedish energy mix is largely based on hydro power and nuclear power, Sweden has already come a long way in terms of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and reducing CO2 emissions compared to many other EU member states.

The Swedish government has chosen a market driven and energy sources neutral approach in dealing with the Europe 2020 RES targets. This approach has been well received across the social partner spectrum. The continuing expansion of the RES sector, notably in the wind power sector, also points to positive results from the approach. The effects on employment is difficult to estimate but it looks like employment opportunities are shifting from the electricity sector to the construction and engineering sector, and from Sweden abroad to mainly Denmark and Germany. The changing business landscape does not however seem to impact on industrial relations.

In contrast to Member States, such as Germany, the post Fukushima debate has not significantly impacted on the nuclear sentiments. On the contrary, a law amendment in 2009, opening up for the possibility to replace old reactors with new ones, show that the traditionally broad political consensus over a gradual phasing out of nuclear reactors has tilted in favour of keeping nuclear energy at least as an option for the future. With hydro power largely having reached its maximum capacity, and alternative energy sources lacking the capacity to replace nuclear power in the foreseeable future, this policy change is not unexpected.

Mats Kullander and Martin Bodensten, Oxford Research

References

Interviews

  • Christer Carlsson, ombudsman at The Union of Service and Communication Employees, (SEKO). Interviewed on the 2011-10-11.
  • Folke Sjöbohm, representative of the trade union for professionals in the private sector (Unionen) to Swedenergy (Svensk Energi), Interviewed on 2011-10-11.
  • Magnus Torstensson, Swedenergy (Svensk Energi). Interviewed on 2011-10-19.
  • Mats Anderson, negotiator at KFS. Interviewed on 2011-10-18.
  • Per Kvarnefalk, Swedish national grid (Svenska Kraftnät, SVK). Interviewed on 2011-10-19.
  • Ronny Wenngren, chief negotiator at The Swedish Electricians Union (Svenska Elektrikerförbundet (SEF). Interviewed on 2011-10-18.
  • Tomas Torstensson, negotiator at the employers’ association for Energy Companies (EnergiFöretagens Arbetsgivareförening, EFA). Interviewed on the 2011-10-14.
Page last updated: 15 November, 2012
About this document
  • ID: SE1202029Q
  • Author: Mats Kullander and Martin Bodensten
  • Institution: Oxford Research
  • Country: Sweden
  • Language: EN
  • Publication date: 15-11-2012
  • Sector: Electrical