Comparative reports from the EMCC network of national correspondents
Comparative reports are significant pieces of comparative analysis covering developments at EU and national level on a pre-selected theme. They are based on structured contributions from the national correspondents, each covering their own country. A synthesis 'comparative report' is prepared by a lead correspondent on the basis of these contributions.
14 May 2013: Public policy and support for restructuring in SMEs (EU Countries / Comparative tables [or view as size 278 kb] )
Across Europe, restructuring in SMEs receives less public attention than large-scale restructuring. However, the recent economic crisis has sharpened policy focus in this area. The current discussion centres around the anticipation of change and individual forms of restructuring – particularly business expansion and internal restructuring – with the accent on business rather than labour market issues. A wide range of supports for SMEs and their employees in restructuring is available – either as part of the support provided for all restructurings, or specifically targeted at SMEs and their employees. However, there is potential for improvement in terms of technical aspects (for example, the reduction of bureaucracy, greater involvement of social partners and increasing transparency of available support) and content-related features (such as provision of diagnostic tools, financial instruments and networking possibilities).
07 February 2012: Recent policy developments related to those not in employment, education and training (NEETs) (EU Countries / Comparative tables [or view as size 229 kb] )
Increasing the participation of young people in the labour market has become an urgent policy goal and in recent times the focus has been directed at the ‘NEET’ group – young people ‘not in employment, education and training’. This report summarises the findings from 28 national reports by experts from the ‘European Restructuring Monitor’ (ERM) network on the topic of public and social partner based measures aimed at re-engaging young NEETs (aged 15–29 years). The aim of the report is to explore the most recent NEET-specific policy interventions in the EU Member States and Norway, as well as other policy measures aimed at promoting the general employment participation of young people, which potentially impact on NEETs. The findings show that given the diversity of the NEET population, Member States have adopted policy measures addressing various NEET sub-groups in order to provide more tailored and personalised support.
12 January 2012: Public measures to support self-employment and job creation in one-person and micro enterprises (EU Countries / Comparative tables [or view as size 576 kb] )
Self-employment and job creation is a key policy area in Europe and is considered to be an important element in fostering economic growth and employment. The financial and economic crisis has had a negative impact on self-employment andconsequently policy focus has been directed at fostering job creation in this area. The aim of this study, based on research carried out by national correspondents across the European Union, is to identify what measures of support are available for those who want to create one-person and micro enterprises. The study finds that policies to aid entrepreneurship and thus help create jobsalready existed before the economic and financial crisis and have received only slightly more focus due to the crisis. In general, instruments to aid self-employment are not new, but have been given higher priority because of the crisis.
22 March 2011: Emerging forms of entrepreneurship (EU Countries / Comparative tables [or view as size 314 kb] )
The current policy and public debate on the overall topic of ‘entrepreneurship’ pays little attention to more specific or emerging forms of entrepreneurship such as one-person enterprises and self-employment, part-time entrepreneurs, parallel and serial entrepreneurs, and business transfer and successions. This study examines the appearance of these distinct catgeories in public and policy discussions across Europe and gives an overview of the availability of quantitative and qualitative statistical information and of research on emerging forms of entrepreneurship.This study notes that the category of one-person enterprises and self-employment is the one most often included in the debate, whereas the other forms of emerging entrepreneurship receive less attention. However, across Europe growing attention is paid to all these forms as drivers for growth and employment, and they are being recognised as flexible forms that offer a transitional state between employment and business development.
28 February 2011: Joint public-private local partnerships for employment to cope with the recession (EU Countries / Comparative tables [or view as size 344 kb] )
Local employment initiatives involving the cooperation of various public and private stakeholders are the focus of this study. The report examines how such local partnerships have been and are being used across the EU and Norway to prevent or counteract the effects of the economic crisis on labour markets. Examples vary of local public-private partnerships delivering employment initiatives. Some examples of local partnerships put in place in response to the crisis can be found, typically in countries where there is a long-standing tradition of such initiatives. The findings indicate that local employment initiatives have played a limited role in dealing with the adverse employment effects of the crisis across reviewed countries, as a number of ad-hoc measures and programmes have generally been designed and introduced by national authorities.
21 May 2010: Social partner and government agency involvement in the restructuring process (EU Countries / Comparative tables [or view as Excel format size 161 kb])
This report presents information at member state level on the role of government, state agencies, employers and trade unions in restructuring. The information is summarised and presented country by country in a series of tables.
21 May 2010: Restructuring: job creation measures (EU Countries / Comparative tables [or view as Excel format size 161 kb])
This report presents an overview of job creation measures in each member state. The information is summarised and presented country by country in a series of tables.
14 May 2010: Restructuring: support measures for affected workers (EU Countries / Comparative tables [or view as Excel format size 161 kb])
This report presents information at member state level on support measures for workers who lose their jobs due to restructuring. The information is summarised and presented country by country in a series of tables.
14 May 2010: Legal framework for restructuring (EU Countries / Comparative tables [or view as Excel format] size 193 kb)
This report presents information on the legal framework governing collective redundancies at national level. The information is summarised and presented country by country in a series of tables.
26 November 2009: Restructuring in bankruptcy: recent national case examples (EU Countries / Comparative analytical report [ or view as size 344 kb])
Cases of bankruptcy generally have more serious consequences for the workers who lose their jobs as a result since, unlike other cases of restructuring, the company concerned might have little or no possibility of providing support, either financial or practical. The number of bankruptcy cases has increased significantly in many countries as the global recession has deepened and spread. This report examines cases of bankruptcy over the past year in order to gain a better understanding of what they involve, the kinds of company affected, the reasons for their difficulties, the consequences for the workers concerned and the support that they receive.
14 July 2009: Tackling the recession: Employment-related public initiatives in the EU Member States and Norway (EU Countries / Comparative analytical report [ or view as size 363 kb])
As European economies slide into recession, companies face increasing financial difficulties as sales decline and prospects for a quick recovery recede. Consequently, a growing number of businesses are coming under threat, putting the jobs of more workers at risk. Already across Europe many companies have closed or reduced their scale of operations substantially and many jobs have been lost. This report examines the various measures being taken by governments and trade unions in different countries to try to maintain jobs, or at least to moderate the losses that occur.
13 July 2009: Restructuring in the construction sector (EU Countries / Comparative analytical report [ or view as size 556 kb])
As one of the largest sectors of economic activity in Europe, construction has been hit hard by the onset of the economic recession. This report reviews recent developments in the construction sector in the majority of EU27 Member States – except France, Hungary and the Netherlands – as well as Norway. It looks at how the sector is being affected by the downturn in each country, and how companies and governments have responded. The study reveals that certain parts of the construction sector – such as housing construction – have been more significantly affected than others. Moreover, in many countries, manufacturers of building materials for the sector have also experienced a decline in output.
25 May 2009: ERM case studies: Good practice in company restructuring (EU Countries / Comparative analytical report [ or view as size 593 kb])
This report presents examples of good practice and effective action in relation to restructuring by companies. The study is based on in-depth company case studies carried out in 25 EU Member States and Norway. It identifies instances where large enterprises have not only respected the minimum standards and procedures stipulated in legislation regarding collective redundancies, or as set out in collective agreements, but have also made significant efforts to minimise the effects of job losses on their workforce and on the local economy.
11 March 2009: ERM case studies: Employment impact of relocation of multinational companies across the EU (EU Countries / Comparative analytical report [ or view as size 371 kb])
This report examines shifts in the pattern of production and employment between different countries and regions of Europe. Based on findings from a series of company case studies, it looks at the location of job creation and job destruction in multinational companies across the 25 EU Member States and Norway. A variety of factors, notably the ever-changing patterns of competition on world markets and technological advances, enter into a company’s strategic thinking and actions when it comes to location decisions. This has inevitable consequences for employment, as companies expand production in some locations and seek to rationalise production and employment in others. This study aims to summarise and illustrate these processes to allow for a better understanding of multinational companies’ location decisions.
17 February 2009: ERM case studies: The consequences of mergers and acquisitions (EU Countries / Comparative analytical report [ or view as size 466 kb])
This report explores the consequences of mergers and acquisitions for the companies and employees involved, as well as for the wider economy, on the basis of in-depth company case studies in 25 EU Member States and Norway. The study aims to summarise the features of the mergers or acquisitions covered and their effects. The case studies present details of the companies concerned, their size in terms of employment and nationality, their sector of activity and a brief review of developments leading up to the merger. In addition, the case studies explore the companies’ reasons for merging, the policy followed after the event, the impact on workers, as well as the extent to which workers were consulted in the lead-up to the merger.
12 December 2008: ERM case studies: The employment impact of relocation within the EU (EU Countries / Comparative analytical report [ or view as size 474 kb])
On the basis of a series of in-depth company case studies, this report explores the positive and negative employment impact of the relocation of economic activities from the ‘old’ to the ‘new’ Member States. The aim of this study is learn more about the process and consequences of such relocation activities from one Member State to another. It examines in great detail the motivation underlying the company’s decision, the nature of activities involved in the relocation process, as well as the consequences of the move. Whenever possible, the evidence has been taken from both the ‘departure’ and ‘arrival’ country, in order to illustrate what the company hoped to gain, how it sought to manage the transfer of its operations, and how the other parties involved reacted to them.
04 March 2008: Perceptions of the employment impact of globalisation (EU Countries / Comparative analytical report [ or view as size 134 kb])
This report explores the employment impact of globalisation and reviews the attitudes and responses of national governments and the European social partners to this phenomenon. It first looks at the attitudes of the different stakeholders in the 27 Member States of the EU, including Bulgaria and Romania which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, as well as Norway. It then examines the responses of governments, employers and trade unions in these countries to the process of globalisation. Finally, the report gives a brief overview of national surveys of public opinion on globalisation which have been carried out in recent years. The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the ERM correspondents, and these are available on request from the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions.