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Annual review of working conditions in the EU 2006–2007


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4 – Official statistics and trends in working conditions

European Working Conditions Survey

On 8 November 2006, the first results from the fourth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) were presented in Brussels. Fieldwork was carried out during September and November 2005 in 31 countries, namely the EU27, the two candidate countries (Turkey and Croatia), Norway and Switzerland. The survey involved face-to-face interviews with nearly 30,000 workers (employees and self-employed), comprising 1,000 workers in each country, with the exception of Cyprus, Estonia, Luxemburg, Malta and Slovenia where 600 workers were interviewed. The publication ‘Fifteen years of working conditions in the EU: Charting the trends’ summarises the main trends over the 1991–2005 period.

The key results of the fourth EWCS include the following findings:

  • overall job satisfaction shows a steady positive trend among European workers, although lower levels of satisfaction are reported in the NMS. Job satisfaction is positively related with employment security, a positive working atmosphere and good opportunities to learn;
  • work intensification is on the increase, with more people working at high speed and to tight deadlines. Direct demands from people as well as performance targets determine the pace of work, while workers’ autonomy levels remain high;
  • average weekly working hours are decreasing, while work–life balance is rated most positively by those working regular and predictable schedules and less positively by those working long hours;
  • working conditions show high variability across the NMS and EU15, depending on sector, sex and employment status, thus exposing the risk of labour market segmentation. Temporary and part-time workers have fewer opportunities of receiving training and learning new things at the workplace;
  • more women are moving into managerial roles, although the gender pay gap persists. In fact, women are more likely to work in low-paid jobs than men are, partly because they more often have a part-time job.

EU Labour Force Survey

On 10 November 2006, the European Commission published the annual report Employment in Europe 2006, which summarised the main trends in relation to the labour market, working hours and atypical work arrangements, and the flexicurity debate. The study mapped the EU Member States under these headings, and assessed the effectiveness of both European and national level active labour market policies.

The Eurostat publication European Labour Force Survey – Principal results 2005 provides an overview of key labour market indicators. Quarterly reports on results of the survey provide further information by highlighting specific aspects of employment.

Employment performance

Figure 1 shows that, following a decline in the early 2000s, the employment growth trend is more irregular and has not yet regained the growth levels of 2000. In all years, employment growth is considerably higher for women than for men although, after the 2002 net decrease, employment growth for men increased more than for women.

Figure 1: Employment growth, by sex, EU27, 2000–2005 (%)

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Source: Eurostat, Labour Force Survey (LFS) main indicators

Employment growth, by sex, EU27, 2000–2005 (%)

In 2006, the unemployment rate stood at 8.8% in the EU27 (Figure 2). Countries showing the highest unemployment rates are Poland (14%), Slovakia (13%) and Greece (9.8%); those reporting the lowest are Denmark (3.8%), the Netherlands (3.9%) and Ireland (4.4%). The unemployment rate of women is above the rate of men in most EU27 countries, except Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and the UK. Considerable gender differences were observed in Greece (8.9 percentage points), Spain (5.6 percentage points) and Italy (3.8 percentage points).

Figure 2: Unemployment rates, by sex, 2006 (%)

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Note: Data for GR, IT, RO and UK refer to 2005.

Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Unemployment rates, by sex, 2006 (%)

Figure 3 shows long-term unemployment rates in the EU25 for 2005. Long-term unemployment is defined as unemployment of 12 months or more. For the EU25, the rate is 3.9%. Countries with the highest levels of long-term unemployment are Slovakia (11.7%), Poland (10.2%) and Bulgaria (6%), while those with the lowest levels are the UK (1%), Denmark (1.1%), and Cyprus, Luxembourg and Sweden (each 1.2%).

Figure 3: Long-term unemployment rates, 2005 (%)

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Source: Eurostat, main indicators

Long-term unemployment rates, 2005 (%)

Figure 4 shows the youth unemployment rate across the EU25 for 2005. The average unemployment rate for young people aged 15–24 years is 18.5%. Poland (36.9%) and Slovakia (30.1%) show the highest rates, while the Netherlands (8.2%), and Denmark and Ireland (each 8.6%) report the lowest levels of youth unemployment.

Figure 4: Youth unemployment rates, 2005 (%)

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Source: Eurostat, main indicators

Youth unemployment rates, 2005 (%)

Figure 5 shows the EU25 employment rates by sex between 2000 and 2005. The total employment rate increased by 1.4 percentage points during this period. Men experienced an employment decline in 2002–2003 but regained the level of 2001 in 2005, while the employment rate for women shows a continual increase over the same period, amounting to a total increase of 2.7 percentage points. In 2005, the rate for women reached 56.3%, just below the Commission’s interim target of 57% for that year.

Figure 5: Employment rates, by sex, EU25, 2000–2005 (%)

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Source: Eurostat, structural indicators 2006

Employment rates, by sex, EU25, 2000–2005 (%)

Female labour market participation

Most countries are far behind the 2010 Lisbon target of a 60% employment rate for women. Nevertheless, Denmark and Sweden have female employment rates above 70%, while Finland, the Netherlands and the UK report rates above 65% (Figure 6).

Figure 6: Employment rates for women, EU27, 2005 (%)

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Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Employment rates for women, EU27, 2005 (%)

  • 7 shows the changes in female employment levels between 2000 and 2005: for the EU27, the increase is 2.3%. Some countries have experienced a considerable increase, such as Spain (9.9%), Italy (5.7%), Latvia (5.5%), Bulgaria (5.4%) and Estonia (5.2%), while four of the NMS and Sweden recorded a decline in employment rates, particularly sharp in the case of Romania (-6%).

Figure 7: Changes in female employment levels, 2000–2005 (%)

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Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Changes in female employment levels, 2000–2005 (%)

Figure 8 shows the gender gap in employment across the EU27. This gap is less than 5% in Finland (3.8%), Sweden (4%) and Estonia (4.3%), while it is considerable in Malta (40.1%), Greece (28.1%), Italy (24.6%) and Spain (24%). The EU27 average is 14.8%.

Figure 8: Gender gap in employment (%)

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Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Gender gap in employment (%)

Temporary employment

According to Figure 9, between 2000 and 2005 the proportion of employees in the EU27 having a non-permanent employment contract, such as a fixed-term contract or temporary agency contract, increased by 1.6% of total employment, from 12.3% to 13.9%. Women are still more likely than men to hold such contracts, although the gender gap has declined from 1.3% to 0.9% of total employment.

Figure 9: Employees with temporary contracts, by sex, EU27, 2000–2005 (% of total employment)

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Source: Eurostat, LFS main indicators

Employees with temporary contracts, by sex, EU27, 2000–2005 (% of total employment)

The prevalence of temporary employment contracts increased across all age groups (15–64 years) by 2% of total employment from 2001 to the second quarter of 2006, but such contracts are less common among older employees (Figure 10). Some 42% of young workers aged 15–24 years held a temporary employment contract in 2006, representing an increase of 5.1 percentage points in the six-year period, while just 6.7% of workers aged over 50 years held a temporary contract, constituting an increase of 0.5 percentage points over the last six years.

Figure 10: Employees with temporary contracts, by age, EU27, 2001–2006 (% of total employed)

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Source: Eurostat, Quarterly LFS (QLFS), 2nd quarter

Employees with temporary contracts, by age, EU27, 2001–2006 (% of total employed)

Part-time work

Figure 11 shows the proportion of part-time work within the total workforce between 2000 and 2005. Until 2002 the share of employees working part time remained stable, albeit with a slight decline for women. However, the overall number of part-time workers increased significantly after that year ( 1.6% of total employees), with a high incidence of part-time work among women ( 2.5%)

Figure 11: Employees working part time, by sex, EU27, 2000–2005 (% of total employees)

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Source: LFS, main indicators

Employees working part time, by sex, EU27, 2000–2005 (% of total employees)

Community statistics on income and living conditions

Since 2005, the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey (EU-SILC) has replaced the European Community Household Panel (ECHP). In that year, EU-SILC covered the then 25 Member States, and planned to include Bulgaria and Romania, whereas ECHP had only covered the EU15.

EU-SILC aims at collecting timely and comparable cross-sectional and longitudinal multidimensional microdata on income, poverty, social exclusion and living conditions. This instrument forms part of the European Statistical System (ESS) and will soon become the EU reference source for income, poverty and social exclusion.

A conference on ‘Comparative EU statistics on income and living conditions: Issues and challenges’, including a methodological workshop, was held in Helsinki on 6–7 November 2006. The meeting reviewed EU-SILC in all its dimensions, such as content, quality, methodology, implementation and access to microdata. The conference aimed at identifying areas for possible improvement, promoting the exchange of best practices and improving the monitoring of the EU social situation. Comparability between countries and over time are essential to the statistical project, including insofar as possible during the transition phase from ECHP to EU-SILC.

Structure of Earnings Survey 2002

The Structure of Earnings Survey (SES) is carried out every four years under Council Regulation (EC) No. 530/1999 (49Kb PDF) and the implementation regulation Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1916/2000 (125Kb PDF), recently amended by Regulation 1738/2005 (125Kb PDF). In July 2006, the Eurostat publication Earnings disparities across European countries and regions summarised the main results of SES 2002 at national and regional level.

Minimum wages

In July 2006, Eurostat published the leaflet Minimum wages 2006 – Variations from 82 to 1,503 euro gross per month (164Kb PDF) focusing on the 21 EU, acceding or candidate countries with a statutory national minimum wage: Belgium, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Turkey and the UK. The study revealed a number of interesting findings, namely that:

  • minimum wages across various countries range from €82 (Bulgaria) to €1,503 (Luxembourg) gross per month. However, when purchasing power parities are applied, the differences are halved;
  • the annual average growth of the minimum wage in Europe is between 1% and 12% among the aforementioned Member States;
  • the proportion of full-time employees earning the minimum wage is much higher among women;
  • the minimum wage level is between 34% and 50% of average gross monthly earnings in industry and in the services sector.

Figure 12 shows that the proportion of workers on minimum wages tends to be higher as these wages increase, and the proportion among women is higher than for men in most countries. Gender differences are not highlighted in some countries (France, Lithuania and Slovenia).

Figure 12: Full-time workers on minimum wages, by sex (%)

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Note: No data for BE, BG, EL, LV and TR.

Source: Eurostat, 2006

Full-time workers on minimum wages, by sex (%)

Harmonised European Time Use Surveys

In February 2006, Eurostat published the working paper Comparable time use statistics – Main results for Spain, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (609Kb PDF), which provides methodological information on a further five countries, thus completing the 2005 paper. Time use surveys provide basic data on the gender division of paid and household work and therefore offer insight into opportunities to reconcile working and non-working life.

Ageing

On 12 September 2006, the Commission published the report Ageing and employment: Identification of good practice to increase job opportunities and maintain older workers in employment, representing a timely contribution to an important EU issue. Based on 41 company case studies in 11 Member States, the report investigates the links between company-level personnel policies, labour policies and pension reforms, mapping good practices and making recommendations.

The Foundation published a report Age and employment in the new Member States, which summarises information on policies and statistics at national level and on 130 case studies at company and organisational level, highlighting specific national conditions.

The Stockholm council set a target employment rate of 50% for older workers, defined as the 55–64 year age group. Figure 13 shows the distance most of the EU27 countries have to bridge to reach this level. In 2005, the employment rate of older workers in the EU27 was 42.2%. Sweden, Denmark, the UK, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Cyprus and Portugal exceeded the target of 50%; however, the majority of Member States are still far below.

Figure 13: Employment rates of older workers, EU27, 2005 (%)

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Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Employment rates of older workers, EU27, 2005 (%)

Figure 14 outlines the trend of employment rates for older workers by sex in the EU27 between 2000 and 2005. It shows a general increase of 5.3 percentage points, with a slight reduction in the gender gap: men’s employment rate increased from 47.1% to 51.5%, while the rate for women increased from 27.4% to 33.5%.

Figure 14: Employment rates of older workers, by sex, EU27, 2000–2005 (%)

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Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Employment rates of older workers, by sex, EU27, 2000–2005 (%)

Alongside the proportion of older people at work, a second structural indicator is the average exit age, that is, the age at which people leave work. The Barcelona council set the target of increasing the average exit age by five years by 2010. Figure 15 summarises the average exit age from the labour force in 2005. The EU25 average is 60.9 years, with significant differences between the Member States: Ireland (64.1 years) and Sweden (63.7) record the highest average exit age, while Slovenia (58.5), and Malta and France (each 58.8 years) show the lowest.

Figure 15: Average exit age from labour force, EU27, 2005 (years)

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Note: EU25 estimated value; DE and CY data are from 2004, SE provisional data. The indicator gives the average exit age from the labour force, weighted by the probability of withdrawal from the labour market.

Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Average exit age from labour force, EU27, 2005 (years)

Lifelong learning

The Lifelong Learning Evaluation Report 2006 (585Kb PDF) monitors the follow up of the 2002 social partner agreement Framework of actions for the lifelong learning development of competencies and qualifications. The report provides an overview of the most significant examples of useful initiatives and tools developed by the social partners at national, sectoral and company levels. Key priority actions are identified, namely to:

  • identify and anticipate competence and qualification needs;
  • recognise and validate competencies and qualifications;
  • inform, support and provide guidance;
  • mobilise resources.

The report shows an increasing concern to better tailor education and training to improve both the employability of workers and the competitiveness of companies. It also seeks to make education and training systems sustainable.

In 2005, the total participation rate in lifelong learning was 9.7% in the EU27. In general and in most Member States, a higher proportion of women (10.4%) participated in lifelong learning than did men (8.9%). Sweden (32.1%), the UK (27.5%) and Denmark (27.4%) show the highest rates, while Bulgaria (1.3%), Romania (1.6%) and Greece (1.9%) report the lowest.

Figure 16: Participation in lifelong learning, 2005 (% of employed)

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Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Participation in lifelong learning, 2005 (% of employed)

Reconciling work and family life

The 2006 Foundation report Working time and work–life balance in European companies summarises the main results of the European survey on working time (ESWT), carried out by the Foundation in 2004–2005 in 21 countries and over 21,000 establishments. Focusing on the company level, the survey shows that a variety of flexible working time arrangements enable a better match between both company and individuals’ needs than is possible within standard working time arrangements.

The Foundation report Working time options over the life course examines the interplay between current working time options and arrangements over the life course, on the one hand, and the design of national-level regulatory systems and welfare states, on the other. The study analyses disparities between demographic groups and the Member States.

The report Reconciliation of work and private life – A comparative review of 30 European countries (1.8Mb PDF), prepared by the EU Expert Group on Gender, Social Inclusion and Employment, provides an overview of the various elements that facilitate the work–life balance mix, such as childcare facilities, leave, flexible working time arrangements, allowances and the role that employers play. The study recommends a better division of responsibilities between the state, the employee and the employer.

The Foundation comparative report Gender mainstreaming in surveys (TN0608TR02) investigates how gender mainstreaming is incorporated into national working conditions surveys, based on 12 national contributions. It discusses both conceptual and methodological issues, as well as the implementation of gender mainstreaming.

Making work pay

In May 2006, the European Commission’s Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities published a report entitled ‘Making work pay’ debates from a gender perspective. The objective of the report is to develop the gender perspective in the debate on labour supply. The primary policy context for this report is the Commission’s Communication Modernising social protection for more and better jobs – a comprehensive approach contributing to making work pay (COM(2003) 842 final).

The report identifies a general lack of gender mainstreaming or impact assessment in the reforms implemented or discussed, which ‘may indicate a lack of political commitment to promoting gender equity in some cases, or at the very least a failure to develop and implement suitable gender mainstreaming procedures’. This failure ‘undermines progress towards gender equity’ and hinders more effective policy solutions for a range of social and economic objectives. The report proposes a ‘gender-sensitive’ checklist for evaluating social protection reforms in order to assess the gender impact of ‘making work pay’ policies.

Gender segregation: Wages and working time

Despite progress in rates of employment, fundamental differences remain between men and women in the labour market in relation to the gender pay gap.

The structural indicator ‘gender pay gap in an unadjusted form’ indicates the persistence of the pay differential by sex across the EU27 between 2000 and 2005. As shown in Table 1, the pay gap appears stable over the six-year period. Figure 17 illustrates differences in the gender pay gap across countries.

Table 1: Gender pay gap in unadjusted form, EU27 (as a % of men’s pay)
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
16 16 16 15 15 15

Note: The gender pay gap is measured as the difference between men’s and women’s average gross hourly earnings, as a percentage of men’s average gross hourly earnings (for employees working 15 hours in paid employment).

Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Figure 17: Unadjusted gender pay gap, as a % of men’s gross hourly earnings, 2005

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Note: Data for Finland not available.

Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Unadjusted gender pay gap, as a % of men’s gross hourly earnings, 2005

Equality and non-discrimination

In September 2006, the report Diversity at work – Eight steps for small and medium-sized businesses (842Kb PDF) was presented in Cyprus at the European conference on diversity in SMEs. The report includes guidance for implementing diversity management as a strategic tool in order to gain a competitive advantage.

In November 2006, the Commission published the 2006 annual report Equality and non-discrimination (2Mb PDF), which provides an overview on progress in implementing the racial equality directive (Directive 2000/43/EC) and the employment equality directive (Directive 2000/78/EC). The report assesses developments according to different aspects: legislative implementation at national and sub-national level, activities carried out by national equality bodies and examples of court cases at EU and national level. The 2006 Conclusions (in French, 661Kb PDF) of the evaluation measuring the progress and effectiveness of the programme from 2001–2006 were issued at the same time.

The special issue of Eurobarometer, Discrimination in the European Union, presented in January 2007, focused on various forms of discrimination according to both country and social group (summary (1.3Mb PDF); report (3.2Mb PDF)).

Also in November 2006, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (re-established as the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) on 1 March 2007) published the 2006 Annual Report on the situation regarding racism and xenophobia in the Member States of the EU (955Kb PDF). The study devotes a chapter to discrimination in employment and to initiatives by public bodies, social partners and NGOs in preventing such inequalities in respect of migrants and ethnic minorities. The report confirms the incidence of labour market segmentation according to ethnic and national origins, as reported in the 2005 annual review.

Mobility

The Foundation report Mobility in Europe is a descriptive analysis of the 2005 Eurobarometer survey on geographical and labour market mobility. Mobility appears to be not always the result of individual choices. Indeed, mobility – particularly job mobility – is often found to be a characteristic of the more vulnerable groups in society. The analysis also shows that mobility-related decisions are the result of significant and often difficult trade offs. People attracted by the idea of making a long-distance move report that they fear the loss of contact and support from family and relatives. Moreover, it would appear that what is good for the EU as a whole – greater overall levels of mobility – is not necessarily reflected in how individuals feel about mobility in their own lives.

Employment and social integration of people with disabilities

In May 2006, the European Commission presented a Thematic study on policy measures concerning disadvantaged youth. It analyses policy measures in relation to the specific situation of disadvantaged youth in the 16–25 year age group, focusing on access to employment across 11 Member States (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and the UK) and the then two acceding countries, Bulgaria and Romania. The study identifies the key mix of elements necessary to reduce the level of poverty and unemployment among this age group.

Social inclusion

In April 2006, the Commission presented the report Social inclusion in Europe 2006 (1.3Mb PDF), providing implementation and update reports on the 2003–2005 national action plans on social inclusion and update reports on the 2004–2006 national action plans on social inclusion. The study gives particular prominence to three social challenges for Europe: increasing immigration; the rise in health and insurance costs as a result of increasing dependency ratios and advances in medical care; and the need for affordable care provision for children, disabled people and elderly people due to demographic changes and the increasing labour market participation of women.

The second Joint report on social protection and social inclusion 2006 (1.5Mb PDF) examines national policies and national reform plans, taking into account the relationships between ageing, pensions and employment rates, on the one hand, and unemployment, economic inactivity and low wage traps, on the other.

Work organisation and quality of work and employment

On 12 September 2006, Eurostat published the Final report of the task force for evaluating the 2004 LFS ad hoc module on work organisation and working time arrangements (1.2Mb PDF). It discusses the opportunities and the problems arising from the planning and implementation of the survey.

The Foundation survey data report Quality of work and employment 2006 (EU0609SR01) gives an overview of EU-level data in the four key dimensions of quality in work and employment: career and employment security, health and well-being, skills development, and work–life balance.

The Foundation comparative report Measuring job satisfaction in surveys (TN0608TR01) provides a comparative overview of how job satisfaction is measured in national working conditions surveys, by investigating conceptual and methodological issues in the study of job satisfaction. The report then examines survey results on levels of general or overall job satisfaction among workers, as well as identifying the relationship between specific factors relating to work and job satisfaction.

In January 2007, the Foundation published the comparative report Teamwork and high performance work organisation (TN0507TR01) based on the third EWCS and 16 national contributions to a questionnaire. The study considers how teamwork has developed as a new form of work organisation, taking into account the context at national and company level, and assesses the impact of teamwork on diverse aspects of working conditions, such as job autonomy, job satisfaction, work intensity, productivity and the learning environment.

Working hours and working time arrangements

Working hours and working time arrangements are important elements of quality of work. Data on working time in the Labour Force Survey differentiate between usual and actual working hours. The former refers to the average weekly hours worked over a long period, while the latter refers to a specific reference week. The actual working hours may deviate from the number of hours usually worked due to absence, holidays or overtime.

In the second quarter of 2006, the average working time in the EU27 was 37.9 hours a week: 41.2 hours for men and 33.8 for women (Figure 18). Among Member States, it ranges from 30.8 hours in the Netherlands to 42.7 hours in Greece. In all countries, the number of hours usually worked is higher for men than for women.

Figure 18: Usual hours worked per week, by sex, EU27, 2nd quarter 2006

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Source: Eurostat, QLFS, 2nd quarter 2006

Usual hours worked per week, by sex, EU27, 2nd quarter 2006

Figure 19 summarises usual working hours for part-time workers. In this context, women report longer working time (20.1 hours) than do men (19 hours) in the EU27, but there is no clear-cut dominance across countries.

Figure 19: Usual working hours of part-time workers, by sex, EU25

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Source: Eurostat, QLFS, 2nd quarter 2006

Usual working hours of part-time workers, by sex

In the second quarter of 2006, the average actual working hours in the EU27 were 37 hours per week: 32.9 hours for women and 40.3 for men. Again, variance is very high across countries.

Figure 20: Average actual working hours per week, by sex, EU27

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Source: Eurostat, QLFS, 2nd quarter 2006

Average actual working hours per week, by sex, EU27

Work-related health monitoring in Europe

The report Healthy work in an ageing Europe – Strategies and instruments for prolonging working life (570Kb PDF), published by the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP), offers a set of analytical tools in order to redesign workplaces and work organisation in the context of an ageing workforce. Moreover, the study develops an ‘integrative’ strategy involving a range of measures – including a work-ability index – aimed at achieving effective and lasting promotion of the work ability and employability of workers.

As shown in Table 2, the incidence of serious and fatal accidents at work has declined significantly since 2001, taking 1998 as the reference year with a value of 100. This downward trend is greater for men than for women.

Table 2: Serious and fatal accidents at work, by sex, EU25, 1999–2004 (1998 = 100)
  1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Total 100 99 95 88 83 80
Men 100 99 94 89 84 82
Women 101 104 101 97 94 91

Note: Provisional data for 2004.

Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

However, substantial differences exist between countries. Figure 21 reveals that, since 1998, the incidence of serious and fatal accidents at work is still increasing in Estonia, Romania and Cyprus. Meanwhile, Slovakia and Bulgaria have experienced the most significant reduction in such accidents since that year.

Figure 21: Serious and fatal accidents at work, 2004 (1998 = 100)

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Note: 1998 is the reference year, and is indicated as the value of 100. Any data above 100 therefore represent an increase in the incidence of serious and fatal work accidents since 1998, while data below 100 represent a decline in the number of such accidents since that year. Data for IE, ES and PT not available for 2004.

Source: Eurostat, structural indicators

Serious and fatal accidents at work, 2004 (1998 = 100)

EWCO survey data reports

The European Working Conditions Observatory (EWCO) continues to produce a series of survey data reports. The report Quality in work and employment 2006 (EU0609SR01) analyses survey data at EU level on quality of work and employment.

In 2006, the following national survey data reports were published:

Further professional education and training in Germany (DE0605SR01)

Working conditions in Estonia (EE0603SR01)

Working conditions in Finland (FI0603SR01)

A review of working conditions in France (FR0603SR01)

Working conditions in Hungary (HU0607SR01)

Trends in quality of work in the Netherlands (NL0601SR01)

Working conditions in Romania (RO0610SR01)

Work-related disorders in Sweden (SE0601SR01)


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Page last updated: 22 July, 2008
About this document
  • ID: TN0702028S
  • Author: Mario Giaccone
  • Institution: Fondazione Regionale Pietro Seveso
  • Country: EU Level
  • Language: EN
  • Publication date: 16-07-2007