EMCC European Monitoring Centre on Change

New forms of employment

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Across Europe, due to societal, economic and technological developments, new forms of employment are emerging that are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. Some transform the relationship between employer and employee, some change work organisation and work patterns, and some do both. To date, very little is known about what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

In an effort to close this knowledge gap, this research project set out to map these new forms of employment across the EU28 and Norway, exploring their working methods and impact on workers and on the labour market. Case studies are available.

Key findings

The initial project provides an overview of nine forms of employment that are new or have become increasingly important in Europe since the year 2000.

  • employee sharing
  • job sharing
  • interim management
  • casual work
  • ICT-based mobile work
  • voucher-based work
  • portfolio work
  • crowd employment
  • collaborative employment

Although most have the potential to benefit employers and employees equally, in a few instances concerns have been raised about their impact on working conditions and the labour market. The report concludes with recommendations about the need to raise awareness of potential problems and establish safety nets for workers.

Following up on this first mapping exercise, Eurofound continues to explore some of the identified new trends in more detail. The first project in this series investigates the potential of strategic employee sharing. This is an employment form for companies that have specific HR needs that do not justify a permanent full-time position, but are often recurring. The companies jointly hire workers to work on a rotating basis in the participating companies. These companies have joint responsibility and liability towards the shared workers who are ensured ‘equal pay, equal treatment’ with core staff. This report summarises the preconditions for a further spread of strategic employee sharing as well as its impact on employers and employees.

Case studies

The ‘New forms of employment’ report is based on 66 individual case studies from across Europe that represent a variety of employment forms. The cases studies either deal with a specific employer-worker relationship or comprise a policy analysis (legislation or collective agreement, public support instrument). The list below details the case studies. For the report on strategic employee sharing, the case studies on the policy analysis in GermanyBelgium, France, Hungary and Austria for this employment form have been updated, and an additional case study on Ireland has been conducted.

No.

Employment form

Country

Type of case study

1

Employee sharing

Germany

AGZ Südbrandenburg

2

Employee sharing

Germany

Policy analysis

3

Employee sharing

Belgium

JobArdent

4

Employee sharing

Belgium

Policy analysis

5

Interim management

Czech Republic

Personal Connect and Manpower

6

Interim management

Czech Republic

Human Garden and Nemos Sokolov

7

Employee sharing

Czech Republic

Policy analysis

8

Employee sharing

Finland

Andelslag

9

Collaborative employment

France

AdPartners

10

Collaborative employment

France

Policy analysis

11

Employee sharing

France

Île de Noirmoutier–Île d'Yeu

12

Employee sharing

France

Fédération Isocel

13

Employee sharing

France

Policy analysis

14

Employee sharing

Hungary

Two IT firms

15

Employee sharing

Hungary

Policy analysis

16

Crowd employment

Lithuania

LingJob

17

Employee sharing

Luxembourg

Textilcord and SolarWood

18

Employee sharing

Luxembourg

ArcelorMittal

19

Employee sharing

Luxembourg

Policy analysis

20

Crowd employment

Czech Republic

Topdesigner.cz

21

Crowd employment

Germany

Clickworker

22

Crowd employment

Denmark

Boblr

23

Crowd employment

Spain

Adtriboo

24

Crowd employment

Latvia

Academy of Ideas

25

Crowd employment

Portugal

Idea Hunting

26

Crowd employment

United Kingdom

Amazon Mechanical Turk

27

Crowd employment

United Kingdom

Taskhub

28

ICT-based mobile work

Denmark

Grontmij

29

ICT-based mobile work

Finland

Suomen Pienyrittäjäin Mainostoimisto

30

ICT-based mobile work

Greece

Microsoft Hellas

31

ICT-based mobile work

Latvia

Belam-Riga

32

ICT-based mobile work

The Netherlands

YoungCapital

33

ICT-based mobile work

Norway

Hewlett-Packard Norway

34

ICT-based mobile work

Slovenia

Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Ljubljana

35

ICT-based mobile work

Sweden

Engbergs Transportsystem

36

Job sharing

Czech Republic

Town District Prague 9

37

Job sharing

Poland

Krakow Regional Labour Office

38

Job sharing

Slovenia

University Medical Centre Ljubljana

39

Job sharing

Slovenia

Policy analysis

40

Casual work

Slovakia

Piešťany Hospital

41

Job sharing, casual work

Slovakia

Policy analysis

42

Voucher-based work

Belgium

Landelijk Dienstencoöperatief

43

Voucher-based work

Belgium

Policy analysis

44

Voucher-based work

Italy

Municipality of Gorizia

45

Voucher-based work

Italy

Policy analysis

46

Casual work

United Kingdom

Slivers of Time

47

Casual work

United Kingdom

Local government contracting of social care

48

Casual work

United Kingdom

Policy analysis

49

Collaborative employment

Germany

Werkheim Hamburg

50

Collaborative employment

Germany

Policy analysis

51

Collaborative employment

Spain

Utopic_US

52

Collaborative employment

Spain

Policy analysis

53

Voucher-based work

Greece

West SA

54

Voucher-based work

Greece

Policy analysis

55

Voucher-based work

Lithuania

Plant nursery

56

Voucher-based work

Lithuania

Policy analysis

57

Casual work

Hungary

Plastic packaging company

58

Casual work

Hungary

Policy analysis

59

Casual work

Romania

Clock Advertising

60

Casual work

Romania

Policy analysis

61

Casual work

Ireland

Company case study

62

Casual work

Ireland

Policy analysis

63

Casual work

The Netherlands

Childcare company

64

Casual work

The Netherlands

Policy analysis

65

Employee sharing

Austria

Policy analysis

66

Voucher-based work

Austria

Policy analysis

67 Employee sharing Ireland Exploring the transferability of the employment form
  Disclaimer: These case studies have not been subject to the full Eurofound editorial and publication process.