EurWORK European Observatory of Working Life

European Industrial Relations Dictionary

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Designed as an easy-to-use online reference tool, the European industrial relations dictionary is a comprehensive collection of the most commonly used terms in employment and industrial relations at EU level today. It contains over 350 entries, featuring concise definitions and relevant contextual information, with hyperlinks to EU legislation and case law.
The product of a collaborative effort between acknowledged experts in the field, the dictionary is aimed at policymakers, practitioners and all those interested in the history and evolving structure of the European Union.
Background information is provided on the industrial relations context , institutional framework, legal framework, collective industrial relations, individual employment, the enterprise, free movement of workers, discrimination and equality in employment, health and safety and movement towards an EU system of industrial relations.

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A (15) B (4) C (45) D (19) E (78) F (16) G (3) H (12) I (14) J (6) L (10) M (14) N (11) O (10) P (17) Q (2) R (18) S (42) T (25) U (4) V (7) W (10) Y (3) Z (1)
Title Updated date
Access to employment 12 January 2011
Access to the judicial process 04 May 2011
Accession 12 January 2011
Acquired Rights Directive 11 March 2007
Acquis communautaire 11 March 2007
Adaptability 11 March 2007
Agreement on Social Policy 29 November 2013
Albany case 11 March 2007
Alert Mechanism Report 09 April 2014
Annual Growth Survey 09 April 2014
Annual leave 07 February 2013
Apprenticeship 11 September 2013
Asbestos 11 March 2007
Autonomous agreement 04 May 2011
Blue card 20 September 2011
Broad Economic Policy Guidelines 09 April 2014
Burden of proof 11 March 2007
BUSINESSEUROPE 11 June 2015
Cardiff process 11 March 2007
Casual worker 11 March 2007
CEC 12 January 2011
CEEMET 07 May 2013
CEEP 20 September 2011
Central management of the enterprise 11 March 2007
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 20 September 2011
Childcare 18 March 2007
Civil society 11 March 2007
Co-decision procedure 06 February 2012
Co-determination 11 March 2007
Codes of conduct 11 March 2007
Collective agreements and terms of employment 11 March 2007
Collective agreements as a mechanism for enforcement of EU law 29 November 2010
Collective agreements implementing directives 11 March 2007
Collective agreements setting labour standards 11 March 2007
Collective industrial relations 28 November 2014
Collective organisation of the social partners 11 March 2007
Cologne process 11 March 2007
Comitology 12 January 2011
Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers 12 January 2011
Community-scale undertakings 11 March 2007
Compensation 11 March 2007
Competences of the European Union 12 January 2011
Competition law and collective agreements 12 January 2011
Complaints to the European Court of Justice 20 September 2011
Conciliation, mediation and arbitration 11 March 2007
Consultation in the enterprise 20 February 2013
Contract of employment 11 March 2007
Coordination of collective bargaining 07 May 2013
Coreper 12 January 2011
Corporate governance 11 March 2007
Corporate social responsibility 06 February 2012
Corporate structures 11 March 2007
Council of Europe 12 January 2011
Council of the European Union 11 March 2007
Council voting procedure 12 January 2011
Country-specific recommendations 15 June 2014
Cross-border trade union cooperation 11 June 2015
Crowd employment 12 June 2015
Dangerous substances 06 December 2009
Data protection 07 May 2013
Davignon group 11 March 2007
Decent work 06 February 2012
Decisions 12 January 2011
Decoupling of social rights 11 June 2007
Derogation 11 March 2007
Direct effect 12 January 2011
Directives 20 September 2011
Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion 04 May 2011
Discrimination 20 September 2011
Discrimination on the grounds of age 04 May 2011
Discrimination on the grounds of racial or ethnic origins 12 January 2011
Discrimination on the grounds of religion or belief 04 May 2011
Discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation 20 September 2011
Dismissals 04 May 2011
Doorn group 06 December 2009
Economic and Monetary Union 12 January 2011
Economically dependent worker 11 June 2007
Electromagnetic fields 19 March 2012
Emanations of the state 20 September 2011
EMCO 28 November 2014
Employability 29 November 2010
Employee 18 March 2007
Employee representation 11 March 2007
Employer 20 September 2011
Employer organisations 11 March 2007
Employment guidelines 12 January 2011
Employment Package 30 May 2013
Employment protection 11 March 2007
Employment rate 29 November 2010
Employment relationship 20 September 2011
Employment title 20 September 2011
Enforcement of EU law 29 November 2010
Enlargement 31 January 2013
EPSCO Council 28 November 2014
Equal 11 March 2007
Equal opportunities 12 January 2011
Equal pay 06 February 2012
Equal treatment 20 September 2011
Equal treatment in collective bargaining 11 March 2007
Equal treatment in social security 20 September 2011
Equality between women and men 20 September 2011
ETUC 20 September 2011
EU law 29 November 2010
EU Semester Alliance 13 May 2015
Eures 11 March 2007
Euro Plus Pact 09 April 2014
Euro-litigation 11 March 2007
Eurocadres 02 December 2010
EuroCommerce 07 May 2013
Europe 2020 20 September 2011
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work 11 June 2007
European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training 02 December 2010
European collective agreements 31 January 2013
European Commission 18 September 2012
European company 02 December 2010
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 20 September 2011
European Cooperative Society 11 March 2007
European Court of Justice 20 September 2011
European Economic and Social Committee 02 December 2010
European economic governance 15 June 2014
European Employment Strategy 02 December 2010
European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) 04 May 2011
European Framework Agreement 07 February 2013
European Globalisation adjustment Fund 02 December 2010
European industry federations 02 December 2010
European Institute for Gender Equality 25 May 2009
European labour market 25 May 2009
European Monitoring Centre on Change 11 March 2007
European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia 27 November 2008
European Parliament 20 September 2011
European private company 06 December 2009
European Qualifications Framework 20 September 2011
European sectoral employer federations 02 December 2010
European sectoral social dialogue 02 December 2010
European semester 15 June 2014
European Social Charter 06 February 2012
European social dialogue 16 February 2015
European social dialogue and implementation of agreements 20 September 2011
European social dialogue via Articles 154-155 TFEU 20 September 2011
European Social Fund 02 December 2010
European social model 04 May 2011
European social partners 15 June 2014
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights 19 October 2008
European Working Conditions Observatory 11 March 2007
European Works Councils 19 March 2012
Financial participation 09 December 2007
Fitness check 06 May 2015
Fixed-term work 03 April 2014
Flexicurity 07 May 2013
Framework agreements 02 December 2010
Framework Directive on health and safety 18 March 2007
Francovich principle 11 March 2007
Free movement and social security 12 January 2011
Free movement of citizens 20 September 2011
Free movement of workers 11 June 2015
Freedom of association 12 January 2011
Frontier workers 11 March 2007
Fundamental rights 20 September 2011
Fundamental rights agency 02 October 2007
Gender mainstreaming 02 December 2010
Gender pay gap 06 February 2012
Harassment and violence at work 20 September 2011
Harmonisation 12 January 2011
Health and safety 02 December 2010
Health and safety 06 May 2015
Health and safety personnel 11 March 2007
Health and safety representatives 29 November 2010
High Level Group on Industrial Relations 11 March 2007
Holidays 11 March 2007
Homeworking 11 March 2007
Horizontal direct effect 20 September 2011
Horizontal segregation 11 September 2013
Horizontal subsidiarity 12 January 2011
ICT-based mobile work 16 June 2015
Inclusive labour markets 04 May 2011
Indirect effect 29 November 2010
IndustriAll Europe 14 April 2014
Information in the enterprise 11 March 2007
Infringements of EU law 29 November 2010
Insolvency 04 May 2011
Integrated guidelines 04 May 2011
Intermittent work 12 June 2015
International Framework Agreement 07 February 2013
International labour standards 11 March 2007
Job sharing 15 June 2015
Joint opinions 29 November 2010
Judicial cooperation in the EU 04 May 2011
Judicial enforcement of EU law 31 January 2013
Justiciability of EU Law 29 November 2010
Labour costs 11 March 2007
Labour force participation 18 March 2007
Labour standards 31 January 2013
Language requirements for employment 11 March 2007
Laval case 29 November 2010
Liaison Forum 02 October 2007
Lisbon Strategy 18 March 2007
Luxembourg compromise 11 March 2007
Luxembourg process 02 December 2010
Macroeconomic dialogue 10 September 2012
Macroeconomic Imbalance Procedure 09 April 2014
Management and labour 04 May 2011
Management prerogative 11 March 2007
Maritime labour standards 02 December 2010
Maternity leave 11 March 2007
Merger Control 18 March 2007
Migration 06 February 2012
Mobbing 09 October 2007
Mobility of workers 02 December 2010
Monti I Regulation 07 May 2013
Monti II Regulation 07 May 2013
Monti Regulation 11 March 2007
Multi-sector agreement 02 December 2010
National Action Plans 02 December 2010
National labour courts 02 December 2010
National Reform Programmes 18 March 2007
National trade union confederations 02 December 2010
Needle-stick injuries 20 September 2011
NEET 02 March 2015
Negative freedom of association 11 March 2007
New forms of employment 12 June 2015
Night work 11 June 2007
Noise 11 March 2007
Non-discrimination principle 04 May 2011
Occupational accidents and diseases 11 March 2007
Occupational mobility 11 March 2007
Offshoring 06 December 2009
On-call working 15 June 2014
Open method of coordination 02 December 2010
Opt-out 02 December 2010
Optical radiation 05 January 2011
Outsourcing 19 October 2008
Overtime 11 March 2007
Pacts for employment and competitiveness 18 March 2007
Parental leave 02 December 2010
Part-time work 04 May 2011
Participation 04 May 2011
Partnership agreement 28 November 2014
Pay 04 May 2011
Peer review 11 March 2007
Portability of social security rights 11 March 2007
Portability of supplementary pensions 29 November 2010
Positive action 04 May 2011
Posted workers 15 June 2014
Pregnancy and maternity 11 March 2007
Preliminary reference procedure 04 May 2011
Professional qualifications 04 May 2011
Promotion 11 March 2007
Proof of employment 29 November 2010
Protective equipment 11 June 2007
Qualified majority voting 29 November 2010
Quality of work 29 November 2010
Racism and xenophobia 04 May 2011
Recommendations 04 May 2011
Reference period 20 September 2011
REFIT 13 May 2015
Regulations 29 November 2010
Remedies for infringements of EU law 04 May 2011
Representativeness 04 May 2011
Representativeness of European sectoral social partner organisations 20 September 2011
Residence right 04 May 2011
Rest periods 11 June 2007
Restructuring 28 November 2014
Right of collective bargaining 29 November 2010
Right to constitute and freedom to join trade unions 11 June 2007
Right to strike 01 December 2014
Right to take collective action 11 June 2007
Right to work 29 November 2010
Risk assessment 11 June 2007
Rüffert case 29 November 2010
Sanctions 04 May 2011
Schengen Agreement/Convention 11 June 2015
Seasonal work 11 June 2007
Sectoral coordination of collective bargaining 20 September 2011
Sectoral employer federations 11 June 2007
Self-employed person 23 April 2015
Senior Labour Inspectors’ Committee 11 June 2007
Services directive 29 November 2010
Services of general interest 04 May 2011
Shift work 11 June 2007
Short-time work 31 January 2013
Sick leave 31 January 2013
Single European Act 11 June 2007
Single European Market 11 June 2007
Small and medium-sized enterprise 29 November 2010
Smart regulation 04 May 2011
Social acquis 29 November 2010
Social Action Programme 11 June 2007
Social clauses 20 September 2011
Social competences 11 June 2007
Social dialogue 28 November 2014
Social dialogue summits 02 October 2007
Social dumping 11 September 2013
Social exclusion 02 December 2010
Social innovation 09 April 2014
Social investment package 30 May 2013
Social objectives 04 May 2011
Social Platform 11 June 2007
Social Policy Agenda 20 September 2011
Social Policy Protocol 11 June 2007
Social protection 04 May 2011
Social security 04 May 2011
Soft law 28 November 2014
Solidarity in industrial relations 11 June 2007
Solidarity principle 04 May 2011
Special negotiating body 11 June 2007
State liability 04 May 2011
Stress at work 19 March 2012
Strike action at EU level 25 May 2009
Subsidiarity 29 November 2010
Supremacy of EU law 04 May 2011
Takeover of companies 19 March 2007
Telework 11 June 2007
Temporary agency work 19 March 2012
Terms and conditions of employment 29 November 2010
Third-country nationals 11 June 2007
Trade unions 17 June 2009
Traineeship 28 November 2014
Transfer of an undertaking 21 January 2008
Transgender 16 October 2013
Transnational company agreement 07 February 2013
Transnational enterprise 11 March 2007
Transnational industrial action 11 June 2007
Treaties of Rome 11 June 2007
Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe 29 November 2010
Treaty of Amsterdam 29 November 2010
Treaty of Lisbon 29 November 2010
Treaty of Maastricht 29 November 2010
Treaty of Nice 29 November 2010
Treaty of Paris 04 May 2011
Treaty of the European Union 11 March 2007
Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance 15 June 2014
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union 06 February 2012
Treaty provisions 04 May 2011
Tripartite concertation 29 November 2010
Tripartite Social Summit 24 March 2015
UEAPME 04 May 2011
Undeclared work 16 October 2013
UNI Europa 07 May 2013
UNICE 21 January 2008
Val Duchesse 11 March 2007
Vertical direct effect 04 May 2011
Vertical segregation 16 June 2015
Victimisation 11 March 2007
Viking case 29 November 2010
Vocational training 29 November 2010
Voluntary agreements 29 November 2010
Women in the labour market 06 February 2012
Worker 20 September 2011
Worker’s right to remain 11 March 2007
Working conditions 20 September 2011
Working environment 20 September 2011
Working time 06 February 2012
Working time and collective agreements 11 March 2007
Workplace innovation 30 May 2013
Work–life balance 11 June 2015
Young workers 04 May 2011
Youth Guarantee 28 November 2014
Youth on the Move 11 September 2013
Zero-hours contracts 12 June 2015