Publications by subject - Gender - 2012
| || Sustainable work and the ageing workforce |
Achieving work environments that make work sustainable over a lifetime is a key facet of the promotion of longer working lives. This study - based on the fifth European Working Conditions Survey - considers the dimensions of work that have proved essential to the understanding of work sustainability: working conditions; physical and psychological health; the expressive dimension of work; reconciliation of working and non-working time; and socioeconomic conditions. It examines the influence of these factors on how older workers perceive the sustainability of their work, taking account of differences between workers in terms of age, occupation and gender. In addition, the working conditions of the ageing workforce across Member States of the European Union are compared. An executive summary is also available.
| || Psychosocial risks in the workplace in Slovenia |
Data presented in this report support and complement previous analyses on quality of working life in Slovenia, which indicated increasing work intensity in Slovenian companies over the last decade. The report is based both on analysis of the standard European Working Conditions Survey questionnaire that covered several aspects of working conditions, including physical environment, workplace design, working hours, work organisation and social relationships in the workplace, and on a Slovenian special module exploring experiences of mobbing, harassment and bullying at the workplace. The findings suggest that Slovenian companies should improve their methods of human resource management and strive to create a more constructive and worker-friendly environment. For example, they should seek to use workers’ full potential and to provide them with good quality information. They should seek to improve working conditions and thus reduce exhaustion and stress levels in the workforce. One tenth of respondents reported experiencing psychological violence and this experience was correlated with being given too much work or work that is badly organised.
| || Trends in job quality in Europe - Executive summary |
Using data from the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), this study measures job quality in the 27 countries of the European Union, as well as the seven additional countries in Europe that participated in the survey. The intention was to find an objective means of assessing the principle established in a number of EU directives that work should adapt to the workers. Increased understanding of the social costs of poor job quality has focused attention on physical and social environments at work. Prolonged life expectancy and the ageing of the population suggest jobs will have to be of good quality if more workers are to be persuaded to work longer. Read more in the report.
| || Trends in job quality in Europe |
Using data from the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), this study measures job quality in the 27 countries of the European Union, as well as seven additional countries in Europe that participated in the survey. The intention was to find an objective means of assessing the principle established in a number of EU directives that work should adapt to the workers. Increased understanding of the social costs of poor job quality has focused attention on physical and social environments at work. Prolonged life expectancy and the ageing of the population suggest that jobs will have to be of good quality if more workers are to be persuaded to work longer. The indices constructed for this study do not rely on subjective measurement such as preferences and attitudes, but are built on the self-reported features of jobs that are associated with workers’ well-being. An executive summary is available.
| || Working conditions in the retail sector - Executive summary |
This report examines trends in working conditions and employment status in the retail sector in the EU27 countries and Norway between 2001 and 2010. The considerable expansion of the sector over the past 20 years or so is associated with a transformation in its competitive structure, greater use of technology and changes in the regulatory framework. Large companies now dominate at the expense of the numerous small and micro businesses that once characterised the sector in most countries. One result is a significant decline in the number of self-employed workers and a substantial increase in the number of part-time jobs (many held by women) and non-permanent contracts. These changes have affected career patterns and introduced new risks to employees’ health, especially psychosocial ones. Recent initiatives by the social partners have aimed above all to regulate flexibility and working time arrangements, promote training, reduce the risk of robbery and enhance employee well-being. Read more in the report.
| || Flexicurity: Actions at Company Level |
The aim of flexicurity is to improve employment opportunities for workers, while at the same time increasing flexibility, enabling organisations to adapt their operations and employment levels to business needs. The past few years have, however, been particularly challenging for European labour markets: the recent financial crisis and recession have had an inevitable negative impact on EU labour markets and unemployment levels. This has called into question the effectiveness of the flexicurity strategy in terms of supporting vulnerable workers. Eurofound research in six EU Member States analysed company initiatives targeting young workers, older workers and women. An executive summary is available.
| || Flexicurity: Actions at company level - Executive summary |
This report examines initiatives that could be considered as flexicurity measures, developed by companies to support women, young workers and older workers. The purpose is to show that even if the measures are introduced for business reasons and are not the result of a deliberate company flexicurity strategy, many may be considered as flexicurity measures as they contribute to improving both flexibility and security of vulnerable workers. On the basis of 16 company case studies in six EU Member States – the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and the United Kingdom – the study examines the motives of companies for developing these actions and the lessons learned. Read more in the report.
| || Use of alcohol and drugs at the workplace - Executive summary |
Alcohol and drugs represent a serious problem for a significant percentage of the working population (5%–20% of workers), especially in some sectors and occupations. Consumption of alcohol and drugs at work can have negative impacts for individuals and organisations in terms of health problems, more short-term absenteeism, reduced performance, conflicts, more work accidents, company image problems, and damage to equipment or products. Public authorities and social partners in EU countries have developed national legislation and agreements banning/limiting alcohol/drug use at work, with a focus on testing practices intended to control usage. Public authorities and social partners have also adopted various policy measures to prevent and combat the negative effects of alcohol and drug use at work. Read more in the report.
| || Fifth European Working Conditions Survey - Overview report |
Work plays a significant role in the lives of people, companies and society at large. Since its inception, the European Union has paid considerable attention to work, and improving working conditions is one of its key policy goals. The European Working Conditions Survey series (the ‘EWCS’) aims to: Measure working conditions across European countries on a harmonised basis; analyse relationships between different aspects of working conditions; identify groups at risks and issues of concern, as well as areas of progress; monitor trends over time; and contribute to European policy development, in particular on quality of work and employment issues. An executive summary is available.
| || Fifth European Working Conditions Survey - Executive summary |
Work plays a pivotal role in people’s lives, in the functioning of companies and in society at large. Improving the quality of work and working conditions has long been at the forefront of EU policy, most recently in the Europe 2020 Strategy towards ‘Smart, inclusive and cohesive growth’. The fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) explores topics as diverse as physical risks, working time, gender segregation,work–life balance, employee representation, work organisation, stress at work, skills development and pay, as well as health and well-being. The survey charts trends in working conditions, identifies major risk factors and highlights issues meriting policy attention. Based on interviews with 44,000 workers across 34 European countries, the fifth EWCS represents a rich store of information and analysis on work in all its dimensions in Europe today.
| || Foundation Findings - Working time in the EU |
The number of hours worked per week continues to drift downwards, on average – the result of more people working part time, fewer people working long hours, and a fall in the collectively agreed working hours in many countries. Foundation Findings provide pertinent background information and policy pointers for all actors and interested parties engaged in the current European debate on the future of social policy. The contents are based on Foundation research and reflect its autonomous and tripartite structure.