This report is based on 21 case studies in four sectors (electromechanical engineering, food manufacturing, financial services and insurance activities, and wholesale and retail) in six countries: Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, France, Spain and Sweden. The aim of this research was to investigate whether and how improvement of the quality of work can boost employee and establishment’s performance. Results indicate that the clearest link between quality of work and performance relates to training, skills and employability. Training contributes to improved performance mostly through increased ability to use technology and to meet customer demands. Training is also used when the potential alternative, recruitment, is a less optimal investment. An executive summary is available - see Related content.