08 May 2003
Work intensity is on the increase in Europe. From 1995 to 2000, employees experienced an intensification of their jobs. This report, based on analysis of the results of the Third European Survey on Working Conditions carried out by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, quantifies and describes the impact of this trend on the workers exposed to it. The pace of work is subject to different constraints which can be grouped into two categories. Industrial constraints are related to a desire to standardise productive activity: production targets, speeds of automatic machine, automatic moving of products. Market constraints on the other hand arise from a concern to adapt to customer demand in the broadest sense. An increase in the pace of work can result in a deterioration of working conditions if it is not compensated by an increase in workers’ autonomy.
13 March 2003
The third European survey on working conditions carried out by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions highlights the risks and dangerous working conditions that continue to pose a threat to workers' health, as well as the increase in time and organisational constraints at work. A study based on the statistical use of the data gathered from the survey provides a great deal of information on the organisation of working time. It also explores the links between the organisation of working time and the duration of working time, and the health risks to which workers in the European Union are exposed. This leaflet is a summary of the following two reports: 'Time and work: duration of work' (EF0211) and 'Time and work: work intensity' (EF0248).
14 January 2003
This report looks at working hours and work schedules and their implications for living and working conditions. Most European countries have experienced a gradual reduction in working hours over the past two decades, accompanied by different working time arrangements and a variation in individual working hours and rhythms. While this has in general led to an improvement in working conditions, it can also be problematic for some people because of the disruption in work and the stress it generates. In addition, work itself has intensified and the flexibility of working time has resulted in variations in the pattern and duration of working times, the organisation of work in more or less regular cycles and irregular organisational procedures, all of which can lead to a disruption of the normal patterns of living. In short, it is not certain that recent developments in the area of working time and work rhythms have significantly improved the living and working conditions of employees.