20 February 2008
This report looks at industrial relations systems across 25 EU Member States and seven global economies: Australia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, South Africa and the US. It explores the most significant effects of globalisation, including labour market flexibilisation, increasing labour migration, the rise of atypical employment forms, as well as changes in work content and working conditions. Through an analysis of the various components of industrial relations systems (actors, processes, outcomes and impact), it tries to identify which type of social model may survive in terms of global competition.
01 November 2007
This report compares the various flexicurity options across 25 Member States – including models of best practice – while looking at how flexicurity is measured in these countries and identifying the challenges related to its implementation in the different countries. It explores the three pillars of the flexicurity model: social protection, labour market adaptability/flexibility and social inclusion. It also highlights the crucial role played by the social partners in the process.
29 November 2006
Disclaimer: This information is made available as a service to the public but has not been edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. The content is the responsibility of the authors.
22 February 2006
In October 2005, a third working conditions survey was carried out in Estonia. It is a continuation of Working Life Barometer (WLB) surveys conducted in 1998 and 2002. While the earlier WLB survey was conducted at the initiative of the Finnish Ministry of Labour  (FI9912129F ), in 2005 the Estonian Ministry of Social Affairs  initiated the survey, which is based on a nationally representative sample of around 1,000 individuals aged 16-64 (using a 'proportional probability sample' from the population of working-age wage earners and entrepreneurs). The data were collected using structured face-to-face interviews.  http://www.mol.fi/  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-industrial-relations-working-conditions/barometer-examines-industrial-relations-in-the-baltic-states  http://www.sm.ee/
24 January 2006
On 19 December 2005, the Estonian Employers’ Confederation (Eesti Tööandjate Keskliit, ETTK ) (EE0310102F ) and the Confederation of Estonian Trade Unions (Eesti Ametiühingute Keskliit, EAKL ) (EE0308101F ) signed an agreement on the national minimum wage rate for 2006. This agreement raises the monthly minimum wage by about 11.5% to EEK 3,000 (up from EEK 2,690 in 2005). The minimum hourly wage will increase to EEK 17.80 from EEK 15.90. According to the Wages Act , the national minimum wage is determined annually by government decree after the central organisations of trade unions and employers have reached consensus about its level for the next year. Pursuant to the Collective Agreements Act  (EE0309102F ), the national minimum wage is compulsory for all employees working in Estonia and to all employers as defined in the Employment Contracts Act  (EE0309101N ).  http://www.ettk.ee/  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-employers-organisations-1  http://www.eakl.ee/  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-trade-unions  http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/X1037K6.htm  http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/X2002K4.htm  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/collective-bargaining-examined  http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/X1056K10.htm  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/social-partners-discuss-new-employment-contracts-act
21 December 2005
In November 2005, the Estonian Employers’ Confederation (Eesti Tööandjate Keskliit, ETTK ) (EE0310102F ) and the PRAXIS Center for Policy Studies  published a study  of employee participation in Estonian companies, written by two economists from PRAXIS (Epp Kallaste and Krista Jaakson). The subject of employee participation in companies has been very little studied in Estonia and there is no information on the extent to which employees’ representatives are involved in the decision-making process. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of other countries’ experiences in the field of employee participation and to analyse how participation works under the various forms of employee representation found in Estonia.  http://www.ettk.ee/  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-employers-organisations-1  http://www.praxis.ee/  http://www.ettk.ee/upload/koolitus_fail/Partnerlus/ETTK_uuring2005_EST.pdf
07 December 2005
In the beginning of November 2005, the Ministry of Social Affairs  (Sotsiaalministeerium) sent the draft of the new Employees’ Representatives Act to the Confederation of Estonian Trade Unions (Eesti Ametiühingute Keskliit, EAKL ) (EE0308101F ) and to the Estonian Employers’ Confederation (Eesti Tööandjate Keskliit, ETTK ) (EE0310102F ) for consultation. The current version of the Employees’ Representatives Act  dates back to 1993. The main reason for developing a new act derived from the obligation to transpose the Directive on national information and consultation rules (2002/14/EC ) (EU0204207F ), which should have been transposed to Estonian legislation already by March 2005. The first attempt to transpose the Directive on national information and consultation rules was in the form of the Social Dialogue Act, which was never approved due to criticism of EAKL and ETTK (EE0403101F , EE0502101N ). The planned date of entry into force of the new act is January 2006 and in addition it is planned to introduce some changes in the Trade Unions Act  (EE0308101F ), Employment Contracts Act  (EE0309101N , EE0405103F ) and Wages Act , which have all originated from the general conception of the draft.  http://www.sm.ee/  http://www.eakl.ee/  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-trade-unions  http://www.ettk.ee/  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-employers-organisations-1  http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/X2001K2.htm  http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32002L0014&model=guichett  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/final-approval-given-to-consultation-directive  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/social-partners-criticise-draft-social-dialogue-act  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/transnational-employee-involvement-act-adopted  http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/X30087K1.htm  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-trade-unions  http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/X1056K10.htm  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/social-partners-discuss-new-employment-contracts-act  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/employmentwork-contracts-examined  http://www.legaltext.ee/text/en/X1037K6.htm
01 December 2005
Estonia's public administration and defence sector has almost 37,000 employees. According to the Statistical Office of Estonia, (Eesti Statistikaamet, ESA ), the pay of civil servants is almost at the same level as the average wage of workers of foreign firms operating in Estonia and, on average, the wages of public servants are higher than the national average wage. However, according to Kalle Liivamägi, chair of the Trade Unions of State and Self-government Institutions Workers (Riigi- ja Omavalitsusasutuste Töötajate Ametiühingute Liit, ROTAL), the highest and lowest wages among public servants differ by a factor of about 15. In some occupations -such as police, rescue service, prison and customs officers - the wage levels are lower than the national average wage and there is shortage of labour. In several cases, actual earned wages can be somewhat higher, but this results from a high level of overtime working. Many civil servants choose to work overtime in order to to earn an acceptable wage, which could not be achieved on the basis of normal working hours.  http://www.stat.ee/
21 November 2005
Much of Estonia’s workforce lacks the education, skills set, and work experience that the rapidly changing labour market requires. Harri Taliga, chair of the Confederation of Estonian Trade Unions (Eesti Ametiühingute Keskliit, EAKL ) (EE0308101F ), believes that current societal values are part of the problem with the education system. Society values white-collar work more than blue-collar work, even though employers complain about the lack of skilled blue-collar workers.  http://www.eakl.ee/  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-trade-unions
02 October 2005
On 27 January 2005, the council of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund  (Eesti Haigekassa) approved its budget for 2005, which for the first time in the history of the fund showed a negative balance. In the total budget, income made up about EEK 6.8 billion and expenditure about EEK 7 billion. The negative balance was caused by an agreement on medical workers’ pay concluded in September 2004 (EE0410102N  and EE0409102F ). To meet this agreement's obligations, the prices for healthcare services have to be raised.  http://www.haigekassa.ee/  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/collective-agreement-signed-in-healthcare-sector  www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/difficult-wage-negotiations-in-healthcare-sector