Despite much legislative progress in gender equality over the past 40 years, there are still gender gaps across many aspects of the labour market. Inequalities are still evident in areas such as access to the labour market, employment patterns and associated working conditions. This report explores gender differences across several dimensions of working conditions, examining relevant country differences, analysing the different occupational groups of both men and women, and comparing the public and private sectors. It also looks at the impact of the crisis on gender segregation in employment. Based on findings from the fifth European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS), conducted in 2010, the analysis offers a striking picture of women and men at work across 34 European countries today.
During recent decades, various new forms of interfirm relationships have been emerging across national contexts. This study seeks to fill a gap in the research carried out to date on the impact of these relationships on working conditions and employment practices, including human resources management policies. This report draws on 20 case studies and a review of literature to investigate the varied effects of five types of interfirm relationships on employment. These are joint ventures, clusters, public-private partnerships, strategic alliances/networks and virtual company networks. In the current economic climate, developing interfirm relationships is linked with company survival and competitiveness.