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Условия на живот и труд в Европа 2021

Annual report
Публикувано
9 May 2022
pdf
Formats and languages
Автор(и): 
Burke, Helen

Обзор

През 2021 г. пандемията от COVID-19 продължи да бъде определяща сила в живота и работата на европейците за втора поредна година, а Eurofound продължи работата си по проучване и регистриране на многобройните и разнообразни въздействия в държавите — членки на ЕС. „Условия на живот и труд в ЕвроRead more

През 2021 г. пандемията от COVID-19 продължи да бъде определяща сила в живота и работата на европейците за втора поредна година, а Eurofound продължи работата си по проучване и регистриране на многобройните и разнообразни въздействия в държавите — членки на ЕС. „Условия на живот и труд в Европа, 2021 г.“ дава представа за промените в заетостта, работата и качеството на живот в Европа, както беше показано от изследванията на Eurofound през 2021 г. В настоящия годишник са обобщени и констатациите на Агенцията относно други трудни аспекти на социалния и икономическия живот, включително равенството между половете в областта на заетостта, неравенството по отношение на доходите и недостига на работна ръка, които ще окажат значително въздействие върху възстановяването от пандемията, устойчивостта спрямо войната в Украйна и успешния преход към екологично и цифрово бъдеще. Проучването на Eurofound относно условията на труд и живот в Европа предоставя база от данни, която да бъде използвана при изготвянето на социалните политики и реализирането на визията на Агенцията „да бъде водещият източник на знания за Европа за по-добър живот и работа“.

Годишникът е придружен от Консолидирания годишен отчет за дейността за 2021 г., който представлява официалния отчет на Агенцията относно операциите, персонала и бюджетите — вж. Свързано съдържание.

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Formats and languages

  • Доклад

    Брой страници: 
    108
    Референтен №: 
    EF22029
    ISBN: 
    978-92-897-2262-9
    Каталожен номер: 
    TJ-AM-22-001-EN-N
    DOI: 
    10.2806/880965
    Catalogue info

    Условия на живот и труд в Европа 2021

    Автор(и): 
    Burke, Helen

    През 2021 г. пандемията от COVID-19 продължи да бъде определяща сила в живота и работата на европейците за втора поредна година, а Eurofound продължи работата си по проучване и регистриране на многобройните и разнообразни въздействия в държавите — членки на ЕС. „Условия на живот и труд в Европа, 2021 г.“ дава представа за промените в заетостта, работата и качеството на живот в Европа, както беше показано от изследванията на Eurofound през 2021 г.

    Форми

    Цитиране на публикацията: 

    Eurofound (2022), Living and working in Europe 2021, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.

  • Tables and graphs

    The yearbook contains the following lists of tables and graphs.

    List of tables

    Table 1: Level of involvement of social partners in employment-protection measures, September 2020

    Table 2: Change in employment levels, weekly hours worked and share of furloughed employees, year on year by quarter, by age and gender, EU27, 2019–2020

    Table 3: Proportions of workers employed in NACE sectors, by age group, 2019 (%)

    Table 4: Women’s share of employment (%) in nine occupational groups, EU27, 1998 and 2019

    Table 5: Women’s employment share by broad sector, EU27 (%), 1998 and 2019

    List of figures

    Figure 1: Employment level (in millions), EU27, 2019–2020

    Figure 2: Number of furloughed workers (in millions), by quarter, EU27, 2019–2020

    Figure 3: Announced job loss, indicating whether or not COVID-19 was cited explicitly as a reason, and announced job creation, EU27 and Norway, Q1 2020–Q1 2021

    Figure 4: Announced job loss in selected sectors (% of employment), indicating whether or not COVID-19 was cited as a reason, EU27 and Norway, March 2020–March 2021

    Figure 5: Employment change, year on year (%),by sectoral category, EU27, 2019–2020 (Q2 and Q4)

    Figure 6: Changes in employment levels and share of furloughed employees, year-on-year by quarter, EU Member States, 2019–2020

    Figure 7: Employment change (in thousands), year on year, in the mostly non-essential sectors with the largest employment declines, EU27, 2019–2020

    Figure 8: Change in employment levels among employees and self-employed, by quarter, EU27, 2019–2020

    Figure 9: Actual versus predicted unemployment rates (%), EU Member States, 2020

    Figure 10: Percentage of workers supported by employment-protection measures in selected sectors and Member States (%), March–August 2020

    Figure 11: Proportion of jobs supported by governmental measures (%), EU Member States, April 2020

    Figure 12: Maximum replacement rates available through employment-protection schemes (% of previous salary), EU Member States, March–September 2020

    Figure 13: Response of businesses to COVID-19 (%), EU27, 2020

    Figure 14: Extent of changes businesses made to their physical infrastructure due to COVID-19 (%), EU27, 2020

    Figure 15: Extent to which encouraging autonomy and control became more important because of the pandemic (%), EU27

    Figure 16: Extent of work autonomy and problem-solving in employees’ jobs (%), EU27, 2019 and 2020

    Figure 17: Relative change in work autonomy and problem-solving, 2019 and 2020

    Figure 18: Location of work during the pandemic (%), EU27

    Figure 19: Telework preferences post-pandemic (%), EU27

    Figure 20: Proportion of employees usually working from home in 2020 compared with the potential who could potentially work remotely (%), EU Member States

    Figure 21: Percentage of workers who worked in their free time during COVID-19, by frequency and work location, EU27, July 2020

    Figure 22: Average life satisfaction of young people, EU27, on a scale of 1–10, 2020–2021

    Figure 23: % of young people at risk of depression, EU27, 2020–2021

    Figure 24: % of young people optimistic about the future, EU27, 2020–2021

    Figure 25: Trust in government and trust in the EU among young people, on a scale of 1–10, EU27, 2020–2021

    Figure 26: Change in GDP per capita (%), by EU Member State, 2019–2020

    Figure 27: Change in the unemployment rates of Member States (percentage points), 2019–2020

    Figure 28: Estimated change in the AROPE rate, EU Member States, 2019–2020

    Figure 29: Expected speed of economic recovery, EU Member States

    Figure 30: Europeans’ opinions on the lives of future generations, EU27, 2018

    Figure 31: Europeans’ opinions on the lives of future generations (%), EU Member States, 2018

    Figure 32: Social Optimism Index scores (mean), EU Member States, 2019

    Figure 33: Wealth concentration (%), by percentile in 21 HFCS countries, 2017

    Figure 34: Average net wealth by Member State, 21 HFCS countries, 2017 (€)

    Figure 35: Breakdown of wealth by wealth quintile, 21 HFCS countries, 2017 (€)

    Figure 36: Employment share by gender concentration category (%), EU27, 1998 and 2019

    Figure 37: Employment shifts by gender and by gender concentration category in percentage points, EU27, 1998–2019

    Figure 38: Employment distribution by gender and job–wage quintile (thousands), EU27, 2019

    Figure 39: Composition of company boards: % of women, by Member State, 2010 and 2018

    Figure 40: Proportion of women on company boards: Member States with and without national gender-balance quotas compared, 2003–2020

    Figure 41: Gender pay gap (%) and average wages, by occupation, EU, 2018

    Figure 42: Gender pay gap (%) and average wages by sector, EU, 2018

    Figure 43: Gender pay gap (%), by job–wage quintile, EU, 2018

    Figure 44: Variable components of pay (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 45: Female employees reporting good prospects for career advancement and gender gap (%), EU27 and the UK, 2005–2015

    Figure 46: Employee experience of selected emotional demands (%), by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2010 and 2015

    Figure 47: Average weekly working hours of employees across the life course, by gender, EU27 and the UK, 2015

    Figure 48: Job vacancy rates in the EU27 (%), by sector, Q2 2018–Q1 2021

    Figure 49: Average job vacancy rate versus average unemployment rate, EU Member States, Q3 2020

    Figure 50: Main shortage occupations – number of countries reporting shortages in different occupations, EU27, 2020

    Figure 51: Prevalence of psychosocial workplace risks, 2005–2015

    Figure 52: Effect of job demands and resources on health and well-being

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