Publications

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  • CAR
    1 December 2002

    'Flexible' Beschäftigungsverhältnisse sind ein Phänomen auf europäischen
    Arbeitsmärkten, dem in den letzten Jahren immer mehr Aufmerksamkeit zuteil
    wird und das Gegenstand zahlreicher gesetzlicher Vorschriften ist - zumindest
    auf Ebene der Europäischen Union. Flexible Beschäftigungsverhältnisse
    können im allgemeinen Sinne als eine Beschäftigungsform definiert werden,
    die nicht auf einem unbefristeten und fortlaufenden Arbeitsvertrag beruht,
    sondern zeitlich begrenzt ist; die wichtigsten Formen sind Beschäftigung mit
    befristeten Arbeitsverträgen, Leiharbeit sowie Gelegenheits- bzw.
    Saisonarbeit. In dieser Vergleichsstudie, deren Grundlagen die Beiträge der
    nationalen Zentren der Europäischen Beobachtungsstelle für die Entwicklung
    der Arbeitsbeziehungen (EIRO) in den EU-Mitgliedstaaten und Norwegen
    darstellen, sollen der Zusammenhang zwischen flexiblen
    Beschäftigungsverhältnissen und der 'Qualität' des Arbeitslebens
    untersucht sowie dessen Behandlung bei den Arbeitsbeziehungen betrachtet
    werden. Zunächst geht es um zeitlich befristete
    Beschäftigungsverhältnisse, wobei genauere Informationen über Leiharbeit
    in einer früheren Vergleichsstudie der EIRO enthalten sind - TN9901201S [1].

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/erm/comparative-information/temporary-agency-work-in-europe

  • Article
    28 November 2002

    Over the second half of 2002, the industrial relations agenda in Portugal has
    been dominated by the government's proposal for a Labour Code, which would
    replace most current labour legislation by bringing existing provisions
    together in a single text. At the same time, current provisions would be
    amended in a variety of areas. This article reviews the initial stage of the
    debate, which ended in November with the submission of a draft to parliament,
    and highlights the main proposals relating to individual employment law.

  • Article
    28 November 2002

    This feature examines social partner involvement in Portugal's 2002 National
    Action Plan (NAP) for employment. It is one of a set of similar features for
    all the EU Member States, written in response to a questionnaire

  • Article
    27 November 2002

    The Collective Bargaining Act (No. 2/1991 in the Collection of Laws), as
    amended, defines how collective disputes between employers and trade unions
    can arise, regulates the conduct of industrial action, and provides for
    mediation and arbitration procedures in advance of any action.

  • Article
    27 November 2002

    The legal framework of the industrial relations system is changing in
    Slovenia. The most important of these changes will be the adoption of a new
    Law on Collective Agreements by parliament, most probably in the first half
    of 2003. However, as well as this legislative change, employers'
    organisations and trade unions also need to accept the principles of a
    democratic society and market economy. So far, trade unions have been more
    successful in accepting these principles - eg through the introduction of
    voluntary membership, the regulation of union representativeness and the
    introduction of more decentralised and confederal internal organisational
    structures and decision-making (SI0210102F [1]) - than have employers'
    organisations. This is quite understandable in view of the prolonged process
    of privatisation. Nevertheless, in the processes of collective bargaining,
    participation, resolution of labour disputes and tripartite cooperation,
    trade unions need representative and legitimate partners on the employer
    side.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-trade-unions-3

  • Article
    27 November 2002

    In October 2002, the Polish parliament passed a new law on the minimum wage,
    which should come into force in early 2003. The new legislation increases the
    minimum wage, amends the way in which it is set, and sets a lower rate for
    recent school-leavers. The trade unions have been very critical of the new
    provisions.

  • Article
    27 November 2002

    In late 2001, one of the statutory instruments accompanying Poland's national
    budget for 2002 abolished the 'pre-retirement allowance', which allowed
    people meeting certain age and employment requirements to cease work before
    retirement age. No new benefits of this sort are now being paid, although the
    payment of pre-retirement allowances allocated in the past is being
    continued. As of August 2002, almost 350,000 registered unemployed people
    were collecting such benefits. The amendment of the pre-retirement benefit
    laws has been challenged before Poland's Constitutional Tribunal
    independently by four parties, including the country's two principal trade
    union organisations, OPZZ and NSZZ Solidarność.

  • Article
    27 November 2002

    Labour costs in Poland account for a relatively small share of the overall
    costs of production, with the share of net wages being especially low. This
    results from the comparatively high tax burden on labour. The actual level of
    labour costs depends, first of all, on the branch of the economy, followed by
    the size of the enterprises involved and their ownership status. The highest
    wages in Poland, and consequently also the highest labour costs, are still
    found in mining, despite recent restructuring. Poland has much lower labour
    costs than the EU Member States or the USA, but higher than those in some
    neighbouring central European countries.

  • Article
    27 November 2002

    Despite a long-standing prohibition of gender-based discrimination at work in
    Poland, the evidence indicates that discrimination against women remains
    widespread, while it has been very difficult for victims of discrimination to
    seek legal redress. Amendments made to the Labour Code in 2002 seek to tackle
    these problems, including by making it easier to bring court cases.