20 Listopad 2011
Across Europe, diverse forms of employee representation structures have developed, providing workers with differing opportunities to voice their interests and to be consulted by their employers directly, at their workplaces, on matters such as economic and human resources developments, working conditions and health and safety measures. This report focuses on the workplace dimension of institutionalised representation of employees. At this level, representation involves only workers of a single undertaking or establishment, and the counterpart on the employers’ side is one single employer rather than an employers’ organisation or group of employers at higher levels of the industrial relations system, such as the sectoral level. The report is based on two sources of information: The findings of the 2009 European Company Survey (ECS); and country fact sheets produced by the national correspondents of the European Industrial Relations Observatory (EIRO).
14 Březen 2010
This background paper by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) investigates the different forms of wage indexation that can be found across Europe. It presents the main characteristics of wage indexation, and looks at the legislation and levels of bargaining to this end, as well as the views and positions of the social partners and the role of the state.
08 Březen 2010
Wage differentials between men and women across Europe are a major policy concern for the European Commission and the social partners. This report provides an overview of national studies on the gender pay gap, and examines the policies and actions of governments and social actors to combat pay discrimination. The report first reviews quantitative and qualitative studies on the unadjusted and adjusted pay gap and examines the many factors cited to explain the wage differentials. Then it explores specific actions carried out by governments to reduce the gender pay gap, such as legislative measures, general recommendations, monitoring procedures and suppport for low-paid occupations. It also looks at joint initiatives and collective bargaining undertaken by the social partners, as well as highlighting successful good practice examples. An executive summary is available.