Representativeness of the European social partner organisations: Public administration

  • National Contribution:

  • Observatory: EurWORK
  • Topic:
  • Pracovněprávní vztahy,
  • Representativeness,
  • Social partners,
  • Date of Publication: 19 Červen 2011



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This study sets out to provide the necessary information for establishing sectoral social dialogue in the public administration sector. The report consists of three main parts: a summary of the sector’s economic background; an analysis of the social partner organisations in all EU Member States, with special emphasis on their membership, their role in collective bargaining/employment regulation and public policy, and their national and European affiliations; and an analysis of the relevant European organisations, in particular their membership composition and their capacity to negotiate. The aim of the EIRO series of studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and supranational social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in selected sectors. The impetus for these studies arises from the goal of the European Commission to recognise the representative social partner organisations to be consulted under the EC Treaty provisions. Hence, this study is designed to provide the basic information required to establish and evaluate sectoral social dialogue. The present study was completed and evaluated in September 2010.

The study was compiled on the basis of individual national reports submitted by the EIRO correspondents. The text of each of these national reports is available below. The national reports were drawn up in response to a questionnaire and should be read in conjunction with it.

Download the full report (474KB PDF)

National contributions may be available


Objectives of study

The aim of this representativeness study is to identify the relevant national and supranational associational actors – that is the trade unions and employer associations – in the field of industrial relations in the public administration sector (i.e. public administration and defence; compulsory social security), and to show how these actors relate to the sector’s European interest associations of labour and business. The impetus for this study, and for similar studies in other sectors, arises from the aim of the European Commission to identify the representative social partner associations to be consulted under the provisions of the EC Treaty. Hence, this study seeks to provide basic information needed to set up sectoral social dialogue. The effectiveness of the European social dialogue depends on whether its participants are sufficiently representative in terms of the sector’s relevant national actors across the EU Member States. Hence, only European associations which meet this precondition will be admitted to the European social dialogue.

Against this background, the study first identifies the relevant national social partner organisations in the public administration sector, subsequently analysing the structure of the sector’s relevant European organisations, in particular their membership composition. This involves clarifying the unit of analysis at both the national and European level of interest representation. The study includes only organisations whose membership domain is ‘sector-related’ (see below). At both national and European levels, a multiplicity of associations exist which are not considered as social partner organisations as they do not essentially deal with industrial relations. Thus, there is a need for clear-cut criteria that enable analysis to differentiate the social partner organisations from other associations.

As regards the national-level associations, classification as a sector-related social partner organisation implies fulfilling one of two criteria: the associations must be either a party to ‘sector-related’ collective bargaining or a member of a ‘sector-related’ European association of business or labour that is on the Commission’s list of European social partner organisations consulted under Article 154 of the EC Treaty, and/or which participates in the sector-related European social dialogue. In the public administration sector, affiliations can be found only with regard to the European associations of labour, while the relevant European-level association of business does not record any national employer associations as members. Affiliation to a European social partner organisation and involvement in national collective bargaining are of utmost importance to the European social dialogue.

For the comparative analysis of the public administration sector, the reference to collective bargaining raises a conceptual problem which generally applies to the public sector or certain parts of it in several countries where collective bargaining in the genuine sense is not established.

Collective bargaining in the genuine sense implies joint regulation of employment terms following negotiations between parties with equal bargaining rights. From a legal perspective, genuine collective bargaining means that the law on collective bargaining which applies to the private sector also applies to the public sector. Genuine bargaining does not hold true for the public sector if the statutory power to regulate the employment terms unilaterally remains with the state bodies. In these circumstances, the trade unions can only enter a process of consultation or de facto negotiations with the authorities. There are also borderline cases in that unilateral regulation is given in formal terms, whereas the outcome of de facto negotiations or consultation is generally regarded as binding in practice.

This conceptual problem is central to this study since involvement in collective bargaining is a constitutive property of a social partner organisation (as outlined above). Applying the concept of bargaining in the genuine sense to the public administration sector, which usually covers a large public sector segment, would thus a priori exclude this segment and its numerous associations in a notable number of countries. Instead, this study adopts a less strict concept that refers to whether trade unions in the public sector can exert a notable influence on the regulation of the employment terms via collective bargaining in the genuine sense or a recurrent practice of either de facto negotiations or consultation. Associations that meet this condition are registered as relevant. For each of these associations, this study documents whether this relevance is based on collective bargaining or de facto negotiations and consultation. Thus this study subsumes genuine bargaining, de facto negotiations and consultation under ‘collective regulation’. Any trade union and employer association involved in sector-related collective regulation is thus included in this study.

In terms of the selection criteria for the European organisations, this study includes those sector-related European organisations that are on the Commission’s list of consultation as well as any other European association with sector-related national social partner organisations under its umbrella. Thus, the aim of identifying the sector-related national and European social partner organisations applies both a ‘top–down’ and ‘bottom–up’ approach.

Definitions

For the purpose of this study, the public administration sector is defined in terms of the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community (Nomenclature statistique des activités économiques dans la Communauté européenne, NACE) (revision 2) to ensure the cross-national comparability of the findings. More specifically, the public administration sector is defined as embracing NACE (Rev. 2) O.84: ‘Public administration and defence; compulsory social security’, including:

  • administration of the state and the economic and social policy of the community (84.1)
  • general public administration activities (84.11);
  • regulation of the activities of providing health care, education, cultural services and other social services, excluding social security (84.12);
  • regulation of, and contribution to, more efficient operation of businesses (84.13);
  • provision of services to the community as a whole (84.2);
  • foreign affairs (84.21);
  • defence activities (84.22);
  • justice and judicial activities (84.23);
  • public order and safety activities (84.24)
  • fire service activities (84.25);
  • compulsory social security activities (84.3).

This definition of the public administration sector is activity-based and is irrespective of the legal form of the unit that performs these activities. Moreover, depending on the country, these activities may be organised by any level of administration, including the central state, the regional authorities and the local state. For further details of the NACE classification system, please go to the webpage of RAMON (Eurostat’s Metadata Server).

The domains of the trade unions and employer organisations and scope of the relevant collective agreements are likely to vary from this precise NACE demarcation. The study therefore includes all trade unions, employer organisations and multi-employer collective agreements that are ‘sector-related’ in terms of any of the following four aspects or patterns:

  • congruence – the domain of the organisation or scope of the collective agreement must be identical to the NACE demarcation, as specified above;
  • sectionalism – the domain or scope covers only a certain part of the sector, as defined by the aforementioned NACE demarcation, while no group outside the sector is covered;
  • overlap – the domain or scope covers the entire sector along with parts of one or more other sectors. The study does not include general associations which do not deal with sector-specific matters;
  • sectional overlap – the domain or scope covers part of the sector plus parts of one or more other sectors.

At European level, the European Commission has not yet established a Sectoral Social Dialogue Committee for the public administration sector. So far only informal structures of sectoral social dialogue have been set up at European level by:

  • on the employer side, the European Public Administration Network (EUPAN) – an informal network of Directors General responsible for public administrations in the EU Member States and the European Commission;
  • on the employees’ side by the European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU) and the European Confederation of Independent Trade Unions (CESI) – via the Trade Unions’ National and European Administration Delegation (TUNED) representing these two trade union federations.

Although the European sectoral social dialogue had not been formalised and institutionalised at the time of running the study, EUPAN and TUNED launched a European social dialogue test phase for the period 2008–2009 with the aim of establishing a Sectoral Social Dialogue Committee during 2010 – a process supported by the European Commission in recent years. At the end of this test phase, EUPAN formally took note of the possibility for its members, should they on an individual and voluntary basis wish to do so, to create an employers' platform outside EUPAN to apply jointly with TUNED to the European Commission for the setting up of a sectoral social dialogue committee for central public administration. Thus, affiliation to one of these European trade union associations (not to EUPAN which is a network of administrations rather than an employer association to which national employer organisations could affiliate) is a sufficient criterion for classifying a national trade union as a social partner organisation for the purpose of this study. However, the constituent criterion is one of sector-related membership. This is important in the case of both EPSU and CESI due to their multi-sectoral domains. Thus, the study includes only those organisations affiliated to EPSU and CESI whose domain relates to the public administration sector as defined above.

Collection of data

The collection of quantitative data, such as those on membership, is essential for investigating the representativeness of the social partner organisations. Unless cited otherwise, this study draws on the country studies provided by the EIRO national centres. It is often difficult to find precise quantitative data. In such cases, rough estimates are provided rather than leaving a question blank, given the practical and political relevance of this study. However, if there is any doubt over the reliability of an estimate, this is noted.

In principle, quantitative data may stem from three sources:

  • official statistics and representative survey studies;
  • administrative data, such as membership figures provided by the respective organisations, which are then used for calculating the density rate on the basis of available statistical figures on the potential membership of the organisation;
  • personal estimates made by representatives of the respective organisations.

While the data sources of the economic figures cited in the report are generally statistics, the figures in respect of the organisations are usually either administrative data or estimates. Furthermore, in order to give a complete picture of the sector’s associational ‘landscape’, several country studies also present data on trade unions and business/employer associations that do not meet the above definition of a sector-related social partner organisation. For the above substantive reasons, as well as for methodological reasons of cross-national comparability, such trade unions and business associations are not considered in this report, even though they are listed in the country reports.

Structure of report

The study consists of three main parts, beginning with a brief summary of the sector’s economic background. The report then analyses the relevant social partner organisations in all 27 EU Member States (EU27), with the notable exception of France for which no country report has been delivered; in the case of France, only the sector-related social partner organisations that could be identified through the ‘top–down approach’ are listed. The third part of the analysis considers the representative associations at European level.

Each section contains a brief introduction explaining the concept of representativeness in greater detail, followed by the study findings. As representativeness is a complex issue, it requires separate consideration at national and European level for two reasons. First, the method applied by national regulations and practices to capture representativeness has to be taken into account. Secondly, the national and European organisations differ in their tasks and the scope of their activities. The concept of representativeness must therefore be suited to this difference.

Finally, it is important to note the difference between the research and political aspects of this study. While providing data on the representativeness of the organisations under consideration, the report does not reach any definite conclusion on whether the representativeness of the European social partner organisations and their national affiliates is sufficient for admission to the European social dialogue. The reason for this is that defining criteria for adequate representativeness is a matter for political decision rather than an issue of research analysis.


Economic background

In the European public administrations, two opposing trends have been observed during the past 15 or 20 years.

On the one hand, cost-efficiency pressures and a widespread doctrine of fiscal discipline due to increasing macroeconomic constraints have paved the way for government measures to streamline public administrations and contain the public sector pay bill. As a consequence, governments have sought to reduce the number of public administration employees and/or to replace part of the widely perceived ‘expensive’ public law with ‘less costly’ and/or more flexible private law employment relationships. Governments have also been pressed to improve the quality of public administration services delivered to citizens as a result of their increasingly differentiated and sophisticated demands. Varying forms of ‘new public management’ have been introduced, in that part of the private sector model of governance has been imposed on the public sector, often accompanied by outsourcing processes and a reform of labour relations.

On the other hand, higher demands of the administrations in terms of both quality and responsiveness may have required additional staff, even though in most cases private law employees have been hired instead of employees with traditional, special public law employment status. In contrast to the EU15 countries, the former Communist countries of central and eastern Europe have undergone a sort of state building process since 1989. This has regularly involved setting up public administration bodies modelled on those in EU15 countries and thus the legal introduction of a special status for career civil servants (see TN0611028S). Concomitantly, a number of public administration employees equipped with some prerogatives have been appointed in these countries. Therefore, public administration employment has expanded during the last one or two decades in most of the 2004–2007 accession countries (see Tables 1 and 2).

As public administration is a prerequisite for a modern state to operate, all 27 Member States record sector-related activities. Therefore, this study covers all Member States, but because there is no information from France, it presents only a limited picture of the sector. Tables 1 and 2 give an overview of developments from 1996 to 2007, presenting several indicators for employment which are important to industrial relations and the social dialogue. The employment figures in some country reports do not refer exactly to the sector definition used in this study because the national sector definitions in these countries differ somewhat from the NACE definition outlined above. Therefore, the employment figures are not strictly comparable across countries but nevertheless they allow for a longitudinal perspective.

In 16 of the 19 countries for which data are available, total employment in the sector expanded between 1996 and 2007 (comparative data are not available for Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Hungary, Malta, the Netherlands and Spain) (Table 1). Likewise, the number of employees grew in 15 countries, whereas a decline is reported in two cases (Denmark and Italy) (Table 2). In some countries (Finland, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Poland, Romania and Slovakia), the number of employees grew by at least 30% between 1996 and 2007.

In all countries for which comparable data are available, the number of employees either corresponds to or comes close to the total number in employment. This result does not come as a surprise, given that employment relations are highly standardised in the public administration systems in line with the country’s legal and institutional traditions.

Table 1: Total employment in public administration sector, 1996 and 2007
  Total employment Male employment Female employment
1996 2007 1996 2007 1996 2007
AT n.a. 281,000a n.a. 158,000a n.a. 123,000a
BE n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
BG n.a. 235,300a n.a. 141,500a n.a. 93,800a
CY 14,378 18,280 10,175 10,879 4,203 7,401
CZ 310,600 326,400 190,600 165,000 120,000 164,000
DE 3,339,000 2,869,000a 2,014,000 1,557,000a 1,384,000 1,311,000a
DK 179,055b 141,120a 89,597b 70,190a 89,458b 70,930a
EE 33,000 38,400a 19,000 17,100a 14,000 21,300a
EL 274,244 381,866a 186,685 241,113a 87,559 140,753a
ES n.a. 1,270,370a n.a. 751,404a n.a. 518,966a
FI 96,134 127,165 44,413 58,155 51,721 69,010
HU n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
IE 69,400b 102,300 43,200b 49,900 26,200b 52,400
IT n.a. 281,000a n.a. 158,000a n.a. 123,000a
LT n.a. 486,229a n.a. 244,289a n.a. 241,940a
LU n.a. 235,300a n.a. 141,500a n.a. 93,800a
LV 14,378 18,280 10,175 10,879 4,203 7,401
MT 307,900 321,900 188,900 162,100 119,000 159,000
NLi n.a. 2,869,000a n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
PL 179,041b 141,112a 89,585b 70,187a 89,456b 70,925a
PT 32,500 38,400a 18,500 17,100a 14,000 21,300a
RO 273,642 381,866a 186,311 241,113a 87,331 140,753a
SE n.a. 1,270,370a n.a. 751,404a n.a. 518,966a
SI 94,849 127,152 43,728 58,146 51,121 69,006
SK 268,604 275,000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
UK 69,400b 102,300 43,200b 49,900 26,200b 52,400

Notes: In some cases, national sector definitions are not fully identical with those used in this study. For details, see the country reports.

a2008. b 1997. n.a. = not available.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009

Table 2: Total employees in public administration sector, 1996 and 2007
  Total employees Male employees Female employees Total sectoral employment as % of total employment in economy Total sectoral employees as % of total employees in economy
1996 2007 1996 2007 1996 2007 1996 2007 1996 2007
AT n.a. 281,000a n.a. 158,000a n.a. 123,000a n.a. 6.61a n.a. 7.68a
BE n.a. 486,229a n.a. 244,289a n.a. 241,940a n.a. n.a. n.a. 13.4a
BG n.a. 235,300a n.a. 141,500a n.a. 93,800a n.a. 7.44a n.a. 5.8a
CY 14,378 18,280 10,175 10,879 4,203 7,401 4.8 4.7 n.a. n.a.
CZ 307,900 321,900 188,900 162,100 119,000 159,000 6.2 6.6 7.2 7.8
DE n.a. 2,869,000a n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 9.4 7.4a n.a. n.a.
DK 179,041b 141,112a 89,585b 70,187a 89,456b 70,925a 6.7b 4.9a 7.4b 5.3a
EE 32,500 38,400a 18,500 17,100a 14,000 21,300a 5.3 5.8a 5.7 6.3a
EL 273,642 381,866a 186,311 241,113a 87,331 140,753a 8.7 8.3a 13 12.8a
ES n.a. 1,270,370a n.a. 751,404a n.a. 518,966a n.a. 7.0a n.a. 8.5a
FI 94,849 127,152 43,728 58,146 51,121 69,006 4.9 5.5 5.6 6.1
HU 268,604 275,000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 9.75 8.9
IE 69,400b 102,300 43,200b 49,900 26,200b 52,400 4.51b 4.61 4.71b 4.84
IT 1,534,554c 1,518,893d 1,059,247c 984,684d 475,307c 534,209d 7.01c 6.61d 9.57c 8.98d
LT 71,300g 83,200a 44,000g 42,500a 27,300g 40,700a 4.9g 5.5a 6.0g 6.2a
LU n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. ~12a n.a. n.a.
LV 60,000 86,600a 34,700 41,600a 24,400 45,000a 6.3 7.7a 6.3 7.7a
MT n.a. 11,593 n.a. 7,872 n.a. 3,721 n.a. 6.9 n.a. 7.6
NL n.a. 472,750 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. ~6.0
PLe 402,000 984,000a n.a. 494,000a n.a. 490,000a 2.6 6.2 4 6.2
PT n.a. 361,900f n.a. 210,000f n.a. 151,900f n.a. 7.8f n.a. 9.5f
RO 130,000 213,200a 66,950 n.a. 63,050 n.a. 1.33 2.48a 2.1 4.2a
SE 221,898 247,410 111,164 111,437 110,734 135,973 5.8 5.6 6.3 6.2
SI 41,661 50,477 21,375 24,787 20,286 25,660 5.7 5.1 6.5 6.1
SK 80,000 167,000a 30,800 81,900a 49,200 85,100a 3.8 6.7a 4.1 8.0a
UK 1,515,089b 1,925,206h 835,911b 963,580h 679,178b 961,626h 5.8b 6.82h 6.63b 7.78h

Notes: In some cases, national sector definitions are not fully identical with those used in this study. For details, see the country reports.

a2008. b 1997. c 1994. d 2006. e 1996 and 2008 data not directly comparable. f 2005. g 1998. h 2009.

n.a. = not available.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009

Men represent the majority of employees in the sector in 13 of the 21 countries recording related statistics, albeit that the numbers of women and men are very close in four countries (Belgium, the Czech Republic, Poland and the UK) (Tables 1 and 2). In eight countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Sweden), women employees are more numerous than men in the sector. Nevertheless, the participation of women in public administration tends to be higher than in the economy as a whole and has been increasing in most countries since 1996, at least in relation to the participation of men. The predominance of male employment in most countries can at least partially be traced back to the fact that some functions and roles in the public administration sector have been traditionally exercised by men such as police staff, armed forces and prison guards.

Table 2 also indicates that the public administration sector represents a notable share of total employment. In particular, this applies to the share in the total number of employees, with a percentage ranging from about 4% (Romania) to more than 12% (Greece) or even 13% (Belgium). This percentage increased in 10 of the 16 countries for which related data are available and declined in six countries (Denmark, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia and Sweden). This outcome in terms of relative numbers somewhat qualifies the sector’s expansion in terms of absolute numbers as outlined above.

The dual system of employment relationships (a core property of the sector) is particularly important to how its system of industrial relations is structured. Traditionally, at least part of the public administration employees in some continental European countries (usually denoted as career public servants) enjoy a public law employment relationship with special terms distinct from that of private law employment relationships. Such career public servants are usually hired through specific procedures (competitive exams, etc.) and subject to certain service regulations laid down by statute; they often perform sovereign functions on behalf of the authority of the state. Within this concept, the alleged loyalty of the civil servant to the state authorities rules out any possibility of conflicts of interest between the employer (that is, the authority) and the employee. Therefore national industrial relations systems have frequently refused to recognise the rights of these employees to collective bargaining rights, the right to take industrial action and, in some instances, even the right to unionise. Instead of free negotiations on the terms and conditions of employment, they are unilaterally determined by the relevant authorities, albeit usually granting more favourable provisions compared to those common among private law employees.

However, employees who are subject to ordinary private law employment contracts are also part of the public administration systems. The share of this group within the public administration sector’s labour force has been increasing for decades, while the number of civil servants has been declining. Moreover, the governments in many countries have sought to harmonise employment relations between public law and private law employees in an attempt to save on labour costs in public administration.


National level of interest representation

In many Member States, statutory regulations refer explicitly to the concept of representativeness when assigning certain rights of interest representation and public governance to trade unions and/or employer organisations. The most important rights addressed by such regulations include:

  • formal recognition as a party to collective bargaining;
  • extension of the scope of a multi-employer collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation;
  • participation in public policy and tripartite bodies of social dialogue.

Under these circumstances, representativeness is normally measured by the membership strength of the organisations. For instance, statutory extension provisions usually allow for extension of collective agreements to unaffiliated employers only when the signatory trade union and employer association represent 50% or more of the employees within the agreement’s domain.

However, this concept of representativeness is not fully applicable to the public sector. There are hardly any employer organisations with an encompassing membership domain in the public administration sector, since in most cases it is the public authorities or related bodies which act as employer representatives vis-à-vis the trade unions. Hence, at least with regard to the employers’ side, such a concept of representativeness is not appropriate here. In addition, at least some of the employees in the public sector in most of the countries are excluded from formal bargaining. Therefore, the criterion of formal recognition of an interest organisation as a party to collective bargaining is of only limited significance to the public administration sector. This criterion is reasonably applicable only in industrial relations systems where notable sector-related collective bargaining exists. For that reason, this study extends the concept of representativeness in that industrial relations actors involved not only in genuine bargaining but also in other forms of employment regulation, including de facto negotiations and consultation practices, are taken into consideration.

As outlined above, the representativeness of the national social partner organisations is of interest to this study in terms of the capacity of their European umbrella organisations for participation in European social dialogue. Apart from their membership strength, the role of the national actors in collective bargaining/collective employment regulation and public policymaking constitutes another important component of representativeness. The effectiveness of the European social dialogue tends to increase with the growing ability of the national affiliates of the European organisations to regulate the employment terms and influence national public policies affecting the sector.

A cross-national comparative analysis shows a generally positive correlation between the bargaining role of the social partners and their involvement in public policy (Traxler, 2004). Social partner organisations that are engaged in multi-employer bargaining are incorporated in state policies to a significantly greater extent than their counterparts in countries where multi-employer bargaining is lacking. This can be attributed to the fact that only multi-employer agreements matter in macroeconomic terms, providing an incentive for governments to persist in seeking the cooperation of the social partner organisations. If single-employer bargaining prevails in a country, none of the collective agreements will have a noticeable effect on the economy due to their limited scope. As a result, the basis for generalised tripartite policy concertation will be absent. In public administration, however, it is difficult to distinguish clearly between single-employer and multi-employer bargaining. Moreover, genuine collective bargaining is rare in the sector. Therefore, rather than taking the incidence of multi-employer bargaining as an indicator of the impact of the social partners on public policymaking affecting the sector, the study uses collective bargaining coverage and collective employment regulation coverage to address representativeness.

In summary, representativeness in the public administration sector is a multi-dimensional concept that embraces three basic elements:

  • the membership domain and strength of the social partner organisations;
  • their role in collective employment regulation;
  • their role in public policymaking.

Membership domains and strength

The membership domain of an organisation, as formally established by its constitution or name, distinguishes its potential members from other groups that the organisation does not claim to represent. As already explained, this study considers only those organisations whose domain relates to the public administration sector. However, there is insufficient room in this report to delineate the domain demarcations of all the organisations in detail. Instead, the report notes how they relate to the sector by classifying them according to the four patterns of ‘sector-relatedness’ specified earlier.

A differentiation exists between membership strength in terms of the absolute number of members and strength in relative terms. Research usually refers to relative membership strength as the density; in other words, the ratio of actual to potential members.

A difference also arises between trade unions and employer organisations in relation to measuring membership strength. Trade union membership simply means the number of unionised persons. In addition to taking the total membership of a trade union as an indicator of its strength, it is also reasonable to break down this membership total according to gender. However, measuring the membership strength of employer organisations is more complex since they organise collective entities [companies in the business segment of the economy and (public law) bodies and authorities in the public (administration) sector] that employ employees. In this case, therefore, two possible measures of membership strength may be used – one referring to the companies and bodies themselves, and the other to the employees working in the member companies/bodies of an employer organisation.

For a sector study such as this, measures of membership strength of both the trade unions and employer organisations also have to consider how the membership domains relate to the sector. If a domain is not congruent with the sector demarcation, the organisation’s total density (the density refers to its overall domain) may differ from sector-specific density (the organisation’s density referring to the sector).

When looking at sector density, it is important to differentiate between an organisation’s ‘sectoral density’ on the one hand and its ‘sectoral domain’ density on the other. Whereas the former measures the ratio of the total number of members of an organisation in the sector to the number of employees in the sector (as demarcated by the NACE classification), the latter indicates the total number of members of an organisation in the sector in relation to the number of employees who work in that part of the sector as covered by the organisation’s domain. The sectoral domain density must be higher than the sectoral density if an organisation organises only a particular part of the sector; that is, where the organisation’s membership domain is either sectionalist or sectionalistically overlapping in relation to the sector.

This report first presents the data on the domains and membership strength of the trade unions and then considers those of the employer organisations.

Trade unions

Data on the domains and membership strength of trade unions in the public administration sector in the 27 Member States are listed in Table 3. The table lists all trade unions that meet at least one of the two criteria for classification as a sector-related social partner organisation defined earlier; for France, only trade unions that are affiliated to the relevant European-level trade union organisations (EPSU and CESI) are taken into account and the sector-related unaffiliated trade unions involved in sector-related collective employment regulation are not.

All Member States have at least one sector-related trade union. A total of 256 sector-related trade unions could be identified. Table 4 presents information for these trade unions on collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations to national and European bodies.

Only six (2.5%) of the 236 trade unions for which related data are available have demarcated their domain in a way which is more or less congruent with the sector definition. This underscores the fact that statistical definitions of business activities tend to differ from the lines along which employees identify common interests and band together in trade unions.

The domain of half the trade unions (49.6%) is sectional in relation to the demarcation of the public administration sector. The corresponding figures for domain overlaps and sectional overlaps are 14.8% and 33.1%, respectively. The predominance of sectionalism primarily emanates from the occupational differentiation of this large sector. In countries with strong occupational groups (for example, police, armed forces, judicial personnel and fire brigades), these are traditionally represented by distinct, highly specialised trade unions. In some countries (for example, Portugal), sectionalism is also a result of the local/regional orientation of a trade union.

This fragmentation of the organisational structure of trade unionism in public administration explains the very high numbers of sector-related trade unions in some countries. Sectionalist domain overlaps occur when a trade union specialises in certain groups of public sector employees, for example:

  • health care and administration personnel as is the case of Federation of Trade Unions in the Health Service (FTU-HS) in Bulgaria and Federation of Trade Unions in the Health Service (KTN) in Finland;
  • specific professions such as managerial staff as is the case of the Public Service Union of the Confederation for Managerial and Professional Staff (CIDA FP) and the National Federation of Local Authority Managers (DIREL) in Italy.

The fact that these groups usually work also in areas other than the public administration sector and represent only a sub-group of the sector at the same time, results in sectionalist overlaps of the domains of these unions with the public administration sector.

Finally, overlap by and large arises from two different modes of demarcation. The first refers to general (that is, cross-sectoral) domains. The second relates to various forms of multi-sector domains, frequently covering the broader public sector including education, public health and social services, as well as the privatised sector and related private sectors.

Overall, pronounced pluralism characterises the trade union system. A multi-union situation is found in all countries but Cyprus. In the remaining countries, only Estonia and Greece record fewer than three trade unions in the sector. This pluralism is most accentuated in Italy (56 trade unions), Denmark (24 trade unions), Romania (17 trade unions) and the Netherlands (15 trade unions).

Table 3: Domain coverage, membership and density of trade unions in the public administration sector, 2007–2008
Name Type of member-shipa Domain coverageb Membership Union density (%)
Members Members in the sector Female membership (% of total membership) Domain Sector
Sector Sectoral domain
AT                
GdG-KMSfB Vol. SO 155,194c <146,135c 49.4c n.a. n.a. ~71.01
GÖD Vol. SO 234,000c n.a. ~60.0c ~70.0c n.a. ~70.01
GPA-djp Vol. SO 244,623c ~25,000 43.4c ~20.0 ~9.0 ~70.01
vida Vol. SO 155,712d n.a. ~33.0c n.a. n.a. n.a.
BE                
CGSP/ACOD Vol. O* 302,084d n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FSCSP/FGSOD Vol. O* 363,7633 155,082 47.0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
SLFP/VSOA Vol. O* ~68,000c n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
UNSP/NUOD Vol. O* n.a. ~3,500c n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
BG                
FITUB Vol. SO* 6,471 4,834 51.0 n.a. 2.05 n.a.
FITUGO Vol. SO* 18,923 18,133 67.0 n.a. 7.7 n.a.
FTU-HS Vol. SO* 18,202 162 75.0 n.a. 0.07 n.a.
NPU Vol. S* 20,000 20,000 20.0 n.a. 8.5 n.a.
PK Admin Vol. SO* 5,800 4,920 64.0 n.a. 2.1 n.a.
UD Vol. SO* 1,440 700 43.0 n.a. 0.3 n.a.
CY                
PASYDY Vol. O 19,962d 14,236d 52.7 ~95.0 77.9 77.9
CZ                
ČMOSA Vol. S* 6,797d 6,797d 41.8d n.a. 2.1 n.a.
ITUCMD Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
NOS PČR Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. 9.73 n.a. 9.73
OSH Vol. S* 6,580 6,580 n.a. 47.9 2.0 47.9
STATORG Vol. C* 23,715 23,715 n.a. 7.37 7.4 7.37
DE                
DBB Vol. O* 1,280,000 ~1,050,000 31.0 ~28.0 36.6 36.6
DHV Vol. SO* 80,000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
GdP Vol. S* 169,140c 169,140c 21.8 n.a. 5.9 n.a.
GdS Vol. S* 39,086c 39,086c ~63.0 n.a. 1.4 n.a.
GOED Vol. O* 56,000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Marburger Bund Vol. SO* 108,000c n.a. 46.0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
ver.di Vol. O* 2,140,000c n.a. 32.0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
DK                
3F Vol. SO* n.a. 7,300 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
COII FAF Vol. S 90 90 75.0 95.0 0.06 95.0
CS Vol. S 7,300 7,300 6.0 85.0 5.2 85.0
DASW Vol. SO 10,398 7,000 85.0 85.0 5.0 85.0
Dansk Metal Vol. SO* n.a. 4,100 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
DF Vol. S 3,323 3,323 31.6 98.9 2.4 98.9
DJOEF Vol. SO* 32,437 14,263 47.9 75.0 10.1 93.0
DKBL Vol. S 294 294 4.7 n.a. 0.2 n.a.
DM Vol. SO* 26,327 ~6,000 55.4 n.a. 4.2 n.a.
DTS Vol. S 4,662 4,662 54.9 98.0 3.3 98.0
FAC Vol. S 3,554 3,554 4.0 93.0-95.0 2.5 93.0-95.0
FCE Vol. S 1,249 1,249 20,7 90.0 0.9 90.0
FF Vol. SO* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FKF Vol. SO 458 435 65.5 95.0 0.3 95.0
FOA Vol. SO 202,242 711 87.9 n.a. 0.5 n.a.
HF Vol. S 50 50 ~50.0 95.0 0.04 95.0
HK Vol. SO* 320,150 78,000 74.5 45.0-50.0 55.3 80.0
HKKF Vol. S 5,003 5,003 6.0 87.0 3.5 87.0
KC Vol. S* ~900 ~900 35.0 n.a. 0.6 n.a.
KF Vol. O* 110,000 36,000 n.a. n.a. ~25.0 n.a.
KFF Vol. S 326 326 60.0 96.0 0.2 96.0
KKE Vol. S 615 615 47.9 99.0 0.4 99.0
PU Vol. S 11,694 11,694 17.5 100.0 8.3 100.0
TAT Vol. S 850 850 50.0 90.0-95.0 0.6 90.0-95.0
EE                
ROTAL Vol. O* 1,830 1,334 ~70.0 4.0 3.5 3.5
TALO Vol. SO* 11,729c 167 ~80.0 12.5 0.4 n.a.
EL                
ADEDY Vol. S 289,469d 289,469d 86.0 ~87.0 76.0 ~87.0
POEIDD Vol. S 8,500 8.500 n.a. ~20.0 2.2 ~20.0
ES                
CIG-Administración Vol. SO* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
CSI-CSIF Vol. O* 159,975 108,779 51.0 n.a. 8.6 8.6
ELA-STV Vol. SO* 29,901 11,612 35.0 n.a. 0.9 23.0
FEP-USO Vol. O* 11,638 8,638 47.0 n.a. 0.7 0.7
FSC-CCOO Vol. O* 257,635 136,240 55.0 n.a. 10.7 10.7
FSP-UGT Vol. O* 228,521 n.a. 48.0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
FI                
AEK Vol. SO 24,000 n.a. 81.0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
JHL Vol. O* 220,000 ~13,000 71.0 ~30.0 ~10.0 ~10.0
JUKO Vol. O* 200,000 ~35,000 64.0 ~90.0 ~35.0 ~35.0
Jyty Vol. SO* 70,000 ~18,000 86.0 ~50.0 ~14.0 ~50.0
KTN Vol. SO* 20,000 ~4,000 47.0 ~45.0 3.0 ~45.0
Pardia Vol. O* 60,000 ~47,000 57.0 ~60.0 ~37.0 ~37.0
Talentia Vol. SO 20,000 n.a. 93.0 ~80.0 n.a. n.a.
TVML n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FR                
CGT-SP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FFAE-CFDT n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FGF-FO n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
INTERCO-CFDT n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
UFCFP-CGC n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
UGFF-CGT n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
UNSA Fonctionnaires n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
HU                
BRDSZ Vol. SO* ~10,400 ~10,400 60.0 20.8 3.7 22.6
FRSZ Vol. S* 6,000-7,000 6,000-7,000 15.0 16.6 2.5 16.6
HODOSZ Vol. S 3,000 3,000 50.0 13.6 1.0 13.6
KÖVIOSZ Vol. SO* 3,870 2,230 45.0 15.5 0.8 7.7
KSZSZ Vol. S* 10,200 10,200 63.0 48.0 3.7 48.0
MKKSZ Vol. SO* 12,000 10,000 65.0 4.0 3.6 4.8
RKDSZ n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
RV Vol. S* 7,500 7,500 20.0 17.8 2.7 17.8
IE                
AGSI Vol. S 2,200 2,200 n.a. n.a. 2.2 n.a.
AHCPS Vol. SO 3,500 3,300 30.0 62.7 3.2 n.a.
CPSU Vol. SO 13,800 13,000 72.0 n.a. 12.7 n.a.
GRA Vol. S 10,500 10,500 n.a. 72.4 10.3 72.4
Impact Vol. SO 61,500 26,000 70.0 n.a. 25.4 n.a.
PDFORRA Vol. S 8,000 8,000 n.a. 72.7 7.8 72.7
POA Vol. S 3,500 3,500 14.0 100.0 3.4 100.0
PSEU Vol. SO 12,000 11,000 58.0 n.a. 10.8 n.a.
SIPTU n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
IT                
ANM Vol. S* 8,338 8,338 n.a. 93.1 0.5 93.1
AP Vol. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
AP VV.F. Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
CIDA FP Vol. SO* n.a. 406 n.a. n.a. 0.03 n.a.
CIDA UNADIS Vol. S* n.a. 383 n.a. n.a. 0.03 n.a.
COCER Aeronautica Militare Comp. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. 100.0 n.a. 100.0
COCER Carabinieri Comp. S* 118,269 118,269 n.a. 100.0 7.7 100.0
COCER Esercito Comp. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. 100.0 n.a. 100.0
COCER Guardia di Finanza Comp. S* 68,134 68,134 n.a. 100.0 4.4 100.0
COCER Marina Comp. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. 100.0 n.a. 100.0
COISP-UP-FPS-ADP –PNFI-MPS Vol. S* 7,000 7,000 n.a. 6.7 0.5 6.7
Confsal VV.F. Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
CSA Regioni e Autonomie Locali Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
DIPRECOM Vol. S* n.a. 33 n.a. n.a. 0.002 n.a.
DIREL Vol. SO* n.a. 995 n.a. n.a. 0.06 n.a.
DIRER Vol. S* n.a. 488 n.a. n.a. 0.03 n.a.
DIRSTAT Vol. S* n.a. 1,368 n.a. n.a. 0.09 n.a.
Federazione Confsal Salfi Vol. S* 6,000 5,169 2.0 n.a. 0.3 2.0
Federazione Confsal UNSA Vol. SO* n.a. 8,950 n.a. n.a. 0.6 2.6
Federazione Consap Italia Sicura Vol. S* 8,000 8,000 30.0 7.7 0.5 7.7
Federazione Nazionale Corpo Forestale dello Stato – UGL Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Federazione Sindacale Forestale SAPECOFS CISAL – DIRFOR Vol. SO* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FIALP CISAL Vol. SO* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FLEPAR Vol. S* 301 301 52.0 n.a. 0.02 n.a.
FLP Vol. SO* n.a. 6,067 n.a. n.a. 0.4 0.6
FNS CISL e Vol. S* 15,000 15,000 8.0 18.7 1.0 18.7
FP CGIL Vol. SO* 404,697 118,953 n.a. 18.2 7.7 11.3
FP CGIL Coordinamento Nazionale VV.F. Vol. S* 6,000 6,000 n.a. 19.4 0.4 19.4
FP CGIL/ Polizia Penitenziaria Vol. S* 2,600 2,600 0.68 6.4 0.2 6.4
FP CGIL/CFS Vol. S* 392 392 14.5 4.6 0.03 4.6
FPS CISL Vol. SO* 325,000 113,892 n.a. 11.6 7.4 10.8
FSA CNPP Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FSP UGL Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
OSAPP Vol. S* 5,900 5,900 n.a. 14.5 0.4 14.5
RdB CUB PI Vol. SO* 76,000 11,514 n.a. n.a. 0.7 1.1
RdB CUB VV.F. Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SAP Vol. S* 20,000 20,000 15.0 19.2 1.3 19.2
SAPAF Vol. S* 2,363 2,363 12.0 27.8 0.2 27.8
SAPPE Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SIAP Vol. n.a. 12,000 12,000 20.0 11.5 0.8 11.5
SILP Vol. S* 10,000 10,000 n.a. 9.6 0.6 9.6
SINAPPE Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SINDIR VV.F. Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SINPREF Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SIPRE Vol. S* n.a. 127 n.a. 4.1 0.01 4.1
SIULP Vol. S* 28,000 28,000 20.0 26.9 1.8 26.9
SNADIP Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SNAPRECOM Vol. S* n.a. 490 n.a. 15.8 0.03 15.8
UGL PCM Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
UIL FPL Vol. SO* 196,231 39,742 61.8 9.7 2.6 5.8
UIL PA Vol. SO* 336,802 29,824 n.a. 21.6 1.9 8.8
UIL PA Coordinamento Nazionale VV.F. Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
UIL PA Corpo Forestale dello Stato Vol. S* 546 546 15.0 6.4 0.04 6.4
UILPS Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
USPP Vol. S* 3,195 3,195 5.3 7.9 0.2 7.9
USPPI Dirigenti Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
LT                
LDF n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
LTUSE n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
LVRSRPS Vol. SO 3,000 2,900 ~ 25.0 ~ 12.0 ~ 3.5 11.6
LVTPF Vol. SO 3,180 2,500 ~ 65.0 ~ 10.0 ~ 3.0 ~ 20.0
LU                
CGFP Vol. O* 27,000 ~20,400 n.a. n.a. ~68.4 ~80.0
FGFC Vol. S* 3,800 3,800 27.9 n.a. ~12.7 ~14.9
LCGB n.a. O* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
NVGL Vol. SO* ~600 ~600 n.a. n.a. 2.0 ~50.0
OGB-L Vol. O* 63,000 ~2,900 33.3 n.a. n.a. n.a.
LV                
LAADA n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
LAKRS Vol. O* 15,100 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
LAPA Vol. S* 1,700 1,700 25.0 18.7 2.0 18.7
LVIPUFDA n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
TULG Vol. S* 1,352 1,352 84.0 n.a. 1.6  
TUSSF Vol. O* <4,620 4,620 76.0 n.a. 5.3 5.3
MT                
GWU Vol. SO* 41,343 4,300 ~18.0 ~26.0 ~37.0 ~41.0
UHM Vol. SO* 26,246 ~8,000 ~32.0 ~16.0 69.0 ~76.0
UPAP-MEPA Vol. S* 146 146 ~59.0 99.0 1.3 99.0
UPISP Vol. SO* 64 55 ~15.0 4.0 0.5 55.0
NL                
Abvakabo FNV Vol. O* 350,500 77,300 52.3 21.0 16.4 n.a.
ACP CNV Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
ANPV Vol. S* 4,500 4,500 n.a. 10.0 1.0 10.0
BARI Vol. SO* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
BPSAG Vol. S* 1,200 1,200 n.a. n.a. 0.3 n.a.
CMHF Vol. SO* 59,500 54,000 n.a. n.a. 11.4 n.a.
CNV Dienstenbond Vol. O* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
CNV Publieke Zaak Vol. O* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
De Unie Vol. SO* 70,000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
NCF Vol. S* 6,000 6,000 n.a. n.a. 1.3 n.a.
NPB FNV Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
VBM/NOV Vol. S* ~30,000 ~30,000 n.a. 30.0 6.3 30.0
VCPS Vol. O* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
VMHP Vol. S* >1,000 >1,000 n.a. n.a. 0.2 n.a.
VPW Vol. S* 1,300 1,300 n.a. n.a. 0.3 n.a.
PL                
FZZPGKiT Vol. SO* 12,850 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
KK NSZZ Solidarność Vol. O* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
NSZZ Solidarność SOZ Vol. SO* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
NSZZPW Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
RKZZPOZiPS Vol. SO* 20,700 n.a. n.a. 3.0 n.a. n.a.
SRSP Vol. SO* 35,681 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
WZZ Solidarność – Oswiata n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
PT                
ASJP Vol. S* 2,060 2,060 44.0 ~90.0 0.6 ~90.0
ASPP Vol. S* 11,017c 11,017c n.a. n.a. 3.0 n.a.
SFJ Vol. S* 6,190 6,190 n.a. 81.4 1.7 81.4
SINTAP Vol. O* ~15,000 ~6,000 58.0 ~2.0 ~1.7 ~1.7
SMMP Vol. S* 1,133 1,133 n.a. ~65.0 0.3 ~65.0
STAL Vol. SO* 53,145 ~50,000 n.a. n.a. ~15.0 ~31.0
STE Vol. SO* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
STFPC Vol. SO* 12,000 10,800 n.a. ~8.0 ~3.0 n.a.
STFPN Vol. SO* 18,9944 17,000 n.a. ~8.0 ~5.0 n.a.
STFPSA Vol. SO* ~35,000 ~31,500 n.a. ~8.0 ~9.0 n.a.
STI Vol. S* 6,971 6,971 n.a. n.a. 1.9 n.a.
STML Vol. SO* 4,556 <4,556 n.a. ~30 ~1.0 n.a.
STRN Sul Vol. S* 1,600 1,600 80.0 53.0 0.4 53.0
USI n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
RO                
Columna Vol. C* ~15,500 ~15,500 n.a. ~7.3 ~7.3 ~7.3
FNPR Vol. SO* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FNSA Vol. S* 46,000 46,000 n.a. n.a. 21.6 n.a.
FNSF Vol. S* 22,900 22,900 n.a. ~65.0 10.7 ~65.0
FNSJ Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
FNSMPS Vol. S* 12,000-15,000 12,000-15,000 n.a. n.a. ~7.0 n.a.
FSANP Vol. S* ~3,500 ~3,500 n.a. n.a. ~1.6 n.a.
FSSR Vol. S* ~1,200 ~1,200 n.a. ~50.0 0.6 ~50.0
PROJUST Vol. S* ~1,965 ~1,965 n.a. ~26.8 ~1.0 ~26.8
Publisind Vol. C* 18,000 18,000 n.a. 8.4 8.4 8.4
SAP Consilium Vol. C* 3,000 3,000 ~56.0 1.4 1.4 1.4
SAP Forta Legii Vol. C* 4,500 4,500 ~61.0 n.a. 2.0 n.a.
SIFPPCAP Vol. C* 3,000 3,000 ~57.0 1.4 1.4 1.4
SNFP Vol. S* 26,000 26,000 n.a. n.a. 12.2 n.a.
SNLP n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SNPPC Vol. S* ~48,000 ~48,000 n.a. ~64.0 ~22.5 ~64.0
SNPV ‘Pro Lex’ Vol. S* 17,500 17,500 28.0 n.a. 8.2 n.a.
SE                
Akademikerförbundet SSR Vol. SO* 56,000 44,000 80.0 ~65.0 17.8 ~65.0
Försvarsförbundet Vol. S* 5,000 5,000 48.0 ~55.0 2.0 ~55.0
Kommunal Vol. SO* 510,000 2,700 81.0 74.0 1.1 n.a.
Ledarna Vol. SO* 90,000 8,500 22.0 ~18.0 3.4 n.a.
OFR Vol. O* 560,000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SACO-S Vol. O* 580,000 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SEKO Vol. O* 134,000 n.a. 29.5 ~70.0 n.a. n.a.
Skolledarförbundet Vol. SO* 156,000 n.a. 75.0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
ST Vol. SO* 90,000 60,000 65.0 30.0 24.2 n.a.
SI                
PSS Vol. S* 6,000 6,000 20.0 70.0 12.0 70.0
SCS Vol. S* 1,540 1,540 40.0 85.0 3.1 85.0
SDDO Vol. O* 20,000 10,000 70.0 15.0 20.0 29.0
SDP Vol. S* 1,682 1,682 90.0 25.0 3.3 25.0
SMO Vol. S* 4,000 4,000 15.0 60.0 8.0 60.0
SPGS Vol. S* 350 350 0.0 70.0 0.7 70.0
SSD Vol. S* 180 180 70.0 60.0 0.4 60.0
SVAS Vol. S* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SZSVS Vol. SO* 20,000 3,000 85.0 40.0 6.0 35.0
SK                
OZH Vol. S 1,279c 1,279c 1.7 32.1 0.8 32.1
OZJ SR Vol. S 2,504 2,504 86.4 47.0 1.5 47.0
OZP SR Vol. S 9,100 9,100 ~24.0 ~40.0 5.4 ~40.0
OZ ZVJS Vol. S 1,308 1,308 ~10.0 ~24.0 0.8 ~24.0
SLOVES Vol. SO* 24,378c ~20,000 70.0 n.a. ~12.0 ~20.0
SOZ ZO Vol. SO* 4,164 1,825 37.7 34.0 1.1 30.4
SOZKaSO n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
SOZPZASS Vol. SO* 26,450c 950c 79.0 36.1 0.6 n.a.
UK                
FBU Vol. S* 44,617 44,617 5.8 ~90.0 2.3 ~90.0
FDA Vol. SO* 17,792 n.a. 46.4 n.a. n.a. n.a.
GMB Vol. O* 601,131 n.a. 46.0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
NIPSA Vol. SO* n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
PCSU Vol. SO* 300,224 280,000 60.0 72.0 14.3 72.0
POA Vol. S* 36,350 36,350 37.0 n.a. 1.9  
Prospect Vol. SO* 122,000 n.a. 23.4 n.a. n.a. n.a.
Unison Vol. O* 1,344,000 ~1,000,000 70.0 n.a. ~51.0 ~51.0
Unite Vol. O* 1,635,483 ~110,000 23.2 n.a. ~5.7 ~5.7

Notes: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

aVol. = voluntary; Comp. = compulsory. b O = overlap; SO = sectional overlap; S = sectionalism; C = congruence; * = domain overlap. c 2009. d 2004. e Prison guards, forestry workers and firefighters.

n.a. = not available

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009

Table 4: Collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of trade unions in the public administration sector, 2007–2008
Union Collective bargaininga Consultationb National and European affiliationsc
AT      
GdG-KMSfB Yes, Yes** Yes ÖGB, EPSU, CESI, Eurofedop, ETF, EFJ, UNI-Europa
GÖD Yes, Yes** Yes ÖGB, CESI, Eurofedop, EPSU
GPA-djp Yes n.a. ÖGB, UNI-Europa, EFFAT, EPSU, EMCEF
vida Yes n.a. ÖGB, ETF, EFFAT, UNI-Europa, EPSU
BE      
CGSP/ACOD Yes** Yes FGTB/ABVV, EPSU
FSCSP/FGSOD Yes** Yes CSC/ACV, EPSU, Eurofedop
SLFP/VSOA Yes** Yes CGSLB/ACLVB, EPSU
UNSP/NUOD Yes** Yes UNSI/NUOV, CESI, UFE
BG      
FITUB Yes Yes CITUB
FITUGO Yes Yes CITUB, EPSU
FTU-HS Yes Yes CITUB, EPSU
NPU Yes** Yes EuroCop
PK Admin Yes Yes CL Podkrepa, EPSU
UD Yes Yes CL Podkrepa
CY      
PASYDY Yes Yes EPSU
CZ      
ČMOSA Yes Yes ČMKOS, EPSU
ITUCMD n.a. 0  
NOS PČR Yes Yes ČMKOS, EuroCop
OSH Yes Yes ČMKOS, EPSU
STATORG Yes Yes ČMKOS, EPSU
DE      
DBB Yes, Yes** Yes CESI
DHV Yes Yes CGB, (CESI)
GdP Yes, Yes** Yes DGB, EuroCop
GdS Yes Yes DBB, (CESI)
GOED Yes Yes CGB, (CESI)
Marburger Bund Yes, Yes** Yes EPSU
ver.di Yes, Yes** Yes DGB, EPSU
DK      
3F n.a. n.a. OAO, CFU, LO, EPSU
COII FAF Yes Yes FTF, CO II, EPSU
CS Yes Yes FTF, CO II, Euromil
DASW Yes Yes FTF, OAO, EPSU
Dansk Metal n.a. n.a. OAO, CFU, LO, EPSU
DF Yes Yes OAO, CFU, (EPSU)
DJOEF Yes Yes AC, CFU, KTO, EPSU
DKBL Yes Yes FTF, KTO
DM Yes Yes AC, CFU
DTS Yes Yes FTF, KTO, CO II, CFU, (EPSU)
FAC Yes Yes AC, CFU
FCE Yes Yes FTF, KTO, CO II, CFU, (EPSU)
FF 0 n.a. CESI
FKF Yes Yes FTF, KTO
FOA Yes Yes LO, OAO, CFU, KTO, EPSU
HF Yes Yes OAO, CFU, (EPSU)
HK Yes Yes LO, OAO, EPSU
HKKF Yes Yes LO, OAO, CFU, EPSU, Euromil
KC Yes Yes FTF, KTO
KF 0 n.a. CESI
KFF Yes Yes FTF , KTO, CO II, CFU, (EPSU)
KKE Yes Yes FTF, KTO
PU Yes Yes FTF, KTO, CO II, CFU, (EPSU)
TAT Yes Yes FTF, KTO, CO II, CFU, (EPSU)
EE      
ROTAL Yes Yes EAKL, EPSU
TALO Yes Yes Eurocadres
EL      
ADEDY Yes** Yes EPSU
POEIDD Yes 0 GSEE
ES      
CIG-Administración Yes Yes CIG
CSI-CSIF Yes Yes CESI
ELA-STV Yes Yes EPSU
FEP-USO Yes 0 USO, EPSU
FSC-CCOO Yes Yes CCOO, EPSU, UNI-Europa
FSP-UGT Yes Yes UGT, EPSU, UNI-Europa
FI      
AEK (Yes) 0 EPSU
JHL Yes Yes SAK, EPSU
JUKO Yes Yes AKAVA, (EPSU)
Jyty Yes Yes EPSU
KTN Yes 0 EPSU
Pardia Yes Yes STTK, EPSU
Talentia 0 0 EPSU
TVML n.a. n.a. CESI
FR      
CGT-SP n.a. n.a. CGT, EPSU
FFAE-CFDT n.a. n.a. CFDT, EPSU
FGF-FO n.a. n.a. FO, EPSU
INTERCO-CFDT n.a. n.a. CFDT, EPSU
UFCFP-CGC n.a. n.a. CGC, CESI
UGFF-CGT n.a. n.a. CGT, EPSU
UNSA Fonctionnaires n.a. n.a. UNSA, EPSU
HU      
BRDSZ Yes Yes SZEF, Eurofedop, (CESI)
FRSZ Yes Yes LIGA, CESP
HODOSZ Yes Yes MSZOSZ
KÖVIOSZ Yes Yes ÉSZT
KSZSZ Yes Yes Eurofedop, CESI
MKKSZ Yes Yes SZEF, CESI
RKDSZ n.a. n.a. CESI
RV Yes Yes  
IE      
AGSI Yes** Yes  
AHCPS Yes Yes ICTU, EPSU, UFE, UNI-Europa
CPSU Yes Yes ICTU, EPSU, UNI-Europa
GRA Yes** Yes EuroCop
Impact Yes Yes ICTU, EPSU
PDFORRA Yes** Yes Euromil, Eurofedop, (CESI)
POA Yes Yes ICTU, Eurofedop, (CESI)
PSEU Yes Yes ICTU, EPSU
SIPTU n.a. n.a. EPSU
IT      
ANM Yes** Yes  
AP Yes Yes  
AP VV.F. Yes Yes Confedir, FEU
CIDA FP Yes Yes CIDA
CIDA UNADIS Yes Yes CIDA
COCER Aeronautica Militare Yes** Yes  
COCER Carabinieri Yes** Yes  
COCER Esercito Yes** Yes  
COCER Guardia di Finanza Yes** Yes  
COCER Marina Yes** Yes  
COISP-UP-FPS-ADP –PNFI-MPS Yes Yes  
Confsal VV.F. Yes Yes Confsal (CESI)
CSA Regioni e Autonomie Locali Yes Yes  
DIPRECOM Yes Yes  
DIREL Yes Yes Confedir
DIRER Yes Yes Confedir
DIRSTAT Yes Yes Confedir
Federazione Confsal Salfi Yes Yes Confsal, UFE (CESI)
Federazione Confsal UNSA Yes Yes Confsal (CESI)
Federazione Consap Italia Sicura Yes Yes EuroCop
Federazione Nazionale Corpo Forestale dello Stato – UGL Yes Yes UGL
Federazione Sindacale Forestale SAPECOFS CISAL – DIRFOR Yes Yes CISAL, DIRFOR (CESI)
FIALP CISAL Yes Yes CISAL (CESI)
FLEPAR Yes Yes CISL
FLP Yes Yes CESI
FNS CISL d Yes Yes CISL
FP CGIL Yes Yes CGIL, EPSU
FP CGIL Coordinamento Nazionale VV.F Yes Yes CGIL
FP CGIL/ Polizia Penitenziaria Yes Yes CGIL
FP CGIL/CFS Yes Yes CGIL
FPS CISL Yes Yes CISL, EPSU
FSA CNPP Yes Yes  
FSP UGL Yes Yes UGL
OSAPP Yes Yes  
RdB CUB PI Yes Yes CUB
RdB CUB VV.F. Yes Yes CUB
SAP Yes Yes CESP
SAPAF Yes Yes  
SAPPE Yes Yes  
SIAP Yes Yes UGL
SILP Yes Yes CGIL
SINAPPE Yes Yes  
SINDIR VV.F. Yes Yes  
SINPREF Yes Yes  
SIPRE Yes Yes FSI
SIULP Yes Yes EuroCop
SNADIP Yes Yes CISAL (CESI)
SNAPRECOM Yes Yes  
UGL PCM Yes Yes UGL (CESI)
UIL FPL Yes Yes UIL
UIL PA Yes Yes UIL
UIL PA Coordinamento Nazionale VV.F. Yes Yes UIL
UIL PA Corpo Forestale dello Stato Yes Yes UIL
UILPS Yes Yes UIL
USPP Yes Yes UGL (CESI)
USPPI Dirigenti Yes Yes UGL (CESI)
LT      
LDF n.a. n.a. CESI
LTUSE n.a. n.a. EPSU
LVRSRPS Yes** Yes LPSK, EuroCop
LVTPF Yes** Yes LPSK, EPSU
LU      
CGFP Yes** Yes CESI
FGFC Yes** Yes CESI, EULOS
LCGB n.a. n.a. EPSU
NVGL Yes* Yes  
OGB-L Yes Yes CGT-L, (EPSU)
LV      
LAADA n.a. n.a. CESI
LAKRS Yes** Yes LBAS, EPSU, EFFAT
LAPA Yes** Yes LBAS
LVIPUFDA n.a. n.a. CESI
TULG Yes** Yes LBAS
TUSSF Yes** Yes LBAS
MT      
GWU Yes Yes EPSU, UNI-Europa, EUROWEA, FERPA, Eurocadres, ETF, EFFAT, EFBWW, EMF
UHM Yes Yes CMTU, Eurofedop, (FERPA), CESI
UPAP-MEPA Yes Yes FORUM
UPISP Yes Yes FORUM
NL      
Abvakabo FNV Yes** (Yes**) (Yes) FNV, EPSU
ACP CNV (Yes**) (Yes) CNV, (CESI)
ANPV (Yes**) (Yes) AC, CESP
BARI (Yes**) (Yes) AC
BPSAG (Yes**) (Yes) AC, EASG
CMHF Yes** (Yes) MHP
CNV Dienstenbond Yes** (Yes) CNV
CNV Publieke Zaak (Yes**) (Yes) CNV, EPSU, CESI
De Unie Yes** (Yes) MHP, UNI-Europa
NCF (Yes**) (Yes) AC, CESI
NPB FNV (Yes**) (Yes) FNV
VBM/NOV (Yes**) (Yes) AC
VCPS (Yes**) (Yes) AC
VMHP (Yes**) (Yes) CMHF, MHP
VPW (Yes**) (Yes) AC
PL      
FZZPGKiT 0 Yes OPZZ, EPSU
KK NSZZ Solidarność Yes Yes NSZZ Solidarność
NSZZ Solidarność SOZ Yes Yes NSZZ Solidarność
NSZZPW Yes Yes  
RKZZPOZiPS Yes Yes OPZZ
SRSP 0 Yes NSZZ Solidarność, EPSU
WZZ Solidarność – Oswiata n.a. n.a. CESI
PT      
ASJP Yes** Yes MEDEL
ASPP Yes** Yes CESP
SFJ Yes** Yes  
SINTAP Yes, Yes** Yes UGT, EPSU
SMMP n.a. n.a. MEDEL
STAL Yes** Yes CGTP-IN, EPSU
STE Yes** Yes UGT, EPSU
STFPC Yes** Yes CGTP
STFPN Yes** Yes CGTP
STFPSA Yes** Yes CGTP
STI n.a. n.a.  
STML Yes** Yes CGTP
STRN Sul Yes, Yes** Yes  
USI n.a. n.a. CESI
RO      
Columna Yes Yes CNSLR Frăţia, EPSU
FNPR Yes Yes EPSU
FNSA Yes Yes Cartel Alfa, (EPSU)
FNSF Yes Yes (EPSU)
FNSJ Yes, Yes** Yes CSN Meridian, E.U.R. (CESI)
FNSMPS Yes Yes (EPSU)
FSANP Yes, Yes** Yes Cartel Alfa, Eurofedop, CESI
FSSR Yes Yes (EPSU)
PROJUST Yes, Yes** Yes Cartel Alfa
Publisind Yes Yes BNS, EPSU
SAP Consilium Yes, Yes** Yes (CSN Meridian), (CESI)
SAP Forta Legii Yes, Yes** Yes (CSN Meridian), (CESI)
SIFPPCAP Yes, Yes** Yes (CSN Meridian), (CESI)
SNFP Yes Yes UFS Atlas, Cartel Alfa
SNLP n.a. n.a. CESI
SNPPC Yes, Yes** Yes Cartel Alfa, CESI, EuroCop
SNPV ‘Pro Lex’ Yes, Yes** Yes (CSN Meridian), (CESI)
SE      
Akademikerförbundet SSR Yes (Yes) EPSU
Försvarsförbundet Yes (Yes) EPSU
Kommunal Yes (Yes) LO, EPSU, EFFAT
Ledarna Yes (Yes) CEC
OFR Yes (Yes) (EPSU)
SACO-S Yes (Yes)  
SEKO Yes (Yes) LO, ETF, UNI-Europa, EPSU
Skolledarförbundet Yes (Yes) EPSU
ST Yes (Yes) EPSU, UNI-Europa, ETF
SI      
PSS Yes Yes CESP, EuroCop
SCS Yes Yes Eurofedop, CESI
SDDO Yes Yes ZSSS
SDP Yes Yes  
SMO Yes Yes  
SPGS Yes Yes ZSSS, FEU
SSD Yes Yes  
SVAS Yes Yes  
SZSVS Yes Yes EPSU
SK      
OZH Yes, Yes** (Yes) KOZ SR, EPSU
OZJ SR Yes (Yes) KOZ SR
OZP SR Yes (Yes) KOZ SR, EuroCop
OZ ZVJS Yes (Yes) KOZ SR
SLOVES Yes Yes KOZ SR, Eurofedop, CESI
SOZ ZO Yes (Yes) KOZ SR, EPSU
SOZKaSO n.a. n.a. KOZ SR, EPSU
SOZPZASS Yes (Yes) KOZ SR, EPSU
UK      
FBU Yes, Yes** Yes TUC, EPSU
FDA Yes, Yes** Yes TUC, EPSU
GMB Yes, Yes** Yes TUC, EPSU
NIPSA Yes, Yes** Yes TUC, EPSU
PCSU Yes, Yes** Yes TUC, EPSU
POA Yes, Yes** Yes TUC, CESI
Prospect Yes.Yes** Yes TUC, EPSU
Unison Yes, Yes** Yes TUC, EPSU
Unite Yes, Yes** Yes TUC, EPSU

Notes: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

a(Yes) indicates indirect involvement in bargaining via lower-level affiliates or higher-level affiliations; ** = de facto negotiations or consultation. b (Yes) indicates consultation takes place only indirectly via higher-level affiliations. c National affiliations are in italics. For the national level, only cross-sectoral (peak level) associations are listed. For the European level, only sectoral associations are listed. Affiliations in brackets are indirect via lower level affiliates or higher level affiliations. d Prison guards, forestry workers and firefighters.

n.a. = not available

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009

As the trade union domains frequently overlap with the demarcation of the sector, so do their domains with one another in the case of those countries with a pluralist trade union ‘landscape’ in the sector. Table 3 provides information about these inter-union domain overlaps. Inter-union overlaps of domains are endemic. In all countries with more than one sector-related trade union apart from four (Austria, Greece, Ireland and Lithuania), the domain of any of the trade unions overlaps with the domain of at least another. As a consequence of this, competitive inter-union relationships are reported for a number of countries:

  • Belgium, where the smaller unions dispute the criteria of representativeness;
  • Hungary, where there is some competition in the police area;
  • Italy, where the trade unions compete for members to achieve representative status (a prerequisite to participate in collective bargaining);
  • Finland, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the UK, where rivalries for members and/or collective bargaining and consultation rights are reported.

Looking at the trade union membership data, it becomes apparent that male employees make up the majority group in slightly more than half of the trade unions for which membership figures by gender are available. This finding largely corresponds to the sector’s employment, which is also dominated slightly by male employees (see Table 2). In cases where the trade unions’ domain is focused on occupations dominated by women, the percentage of female union members may exceed 80%.

Apart from five Italian organisations, membership of the sector-related trade unions is voluntary in all cases of the 27 Member States under consideration (as far as data are available). In Italy, members of the police force are under the military code and the armed forces are subject to compulsory membership of one of the five representative organisations in this area. In a strict sense, these five organisations (that is, central councils) for the armed forces and the military police are elected advisory bodies set up by law rather than free trade unions. However, as they operate as quasi-trade unions consulting with the authorities in labour relations, they are included in this study.

The absolute numbers of trade union members differ widely, ranging from more than two million to only a few dozens. This considerable variation reflects differences in the size of the economy and the comprehensiveness of the membership domain rather than the ability to attract members. Compared with total membership, the sector-specific membership is fairly small in several trade unions, reflecting the high level of fragmentation of the organisational ‘landscape’ of labour in many Member States.

Density corrects for differences in the country size and so this is the measure of membership strength that is more appropriate to a comparative analysis.

  • Domain density is over 50% in the case of 38.3% of the trade unions based on voluntary membership which document figures on density.
  • Of those trade unions for which data area available, 27.0% organise fewer than 15% of the employees within their domain.
  • The remaining trade unions (34.8%) record a density of between 15% and 50% of their potential members.

These results indicate that the overall domain density of the sector-related trade unions is relatively high. This is substantiated by the fact that 29.6% of the trade unions gather 70% or more of the employees covered by their domain. However, domain density data are recorded for less than half the 251 voluntary sector-related trade unions in Table 3 and therefore these figures should be treated with caution.

In general, the density of the sector-related trade unions in the public administration sector largely corresponds with their relatively high overall domain densities. When the sectoral domain density of the trade unions is taken into account (this tends to be higher than their sectoral density for the reasons outlined above), their density in the public administration sector tends to be largely equal to the density ratio referring to their domain on aggregate. For those trade unions based on voluntary membership for which data are available:

  • sectoral domain density is over 50% in the case of 37.6%;
  • 32.5% record a sectoral domain density lower than 15%;
  • 29.9% record a sectoral domain density of between 15% and 50%.

No data on sectoral domain density are available for more than half of the sector-related trade unions.

There is no clear trend for those trade unions for which figures on both measures (sectoral domain density and domain density on aggregate) are recorded. There are as many trade unions with a sectoral domain density higher compared with their aggregate density as trade unions showing the reverse relationship. This means that the sector under consideration is neither the stronghold nor a flaw of those trade unions whose domain embraces other sectors as well.

Compared with many service industries in the private sector, the density of the public administration sector appears to be rather high. This finding is in line with the fact that unionisation (at least in the ‘old’ EU15) traditionally tends to be higher in the public segment of the economy than in the private sector.

Employer organisations

Tables 5 and 6 present membership and density data, respectively, for the employer organisations in the public administration sector. Sector-related employer organisations are documented for nine out of the 26 countries under consideration (Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Slovakia and Sweden). All the listed employer organisations are a party to sector-related collective bargaining/collective employment regulation (Table 7). This is because involvement in sector-related collective employment regulation is the only criterion for an employer organisation to be classified as a social partner organisation for the purpose of this study. Due to the lack of any sector-related European-level employer association, the ‘top–down’ approach for identifying relevant national employer organisations, as outlined earlier, is not applicable here.

The unit of membership of an employer organisation in the public administration sector may vary from one organisation and country to the other. The nature of these members ranges from social insurance institutions (for example, in Germany) to associations of regional/local state level administrations (for example, in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg and Sweden) and central authorities or independent agencies/separately managed bodies on behalf of the authorities (for example, in Denmark, Finland, Italy and Sweden).

Likewise, their legal form may vary from public law bodies with frequently compulsory membership to private law associations with usually voluntary membership. However, in most countries (that is, 17 of the 26 under consideration where no sector-related employer organisation exists), it is the central state or regional authorities themselves rather than separate employer associations which conduct negotiations with organised labour or unilaterally determine the employment conditions on behalf of the sector.

In between a fourth and a third of the employer organisations can rely on obligatory membership. The situation is not fully clear for all organisations; for example, the Local Government Management Services Board (LGMSB) in Ireland seems to have an element of compulsion). Representativeness of all other employer organisations rests on voluntary membership.

Compared with the large number of trade unions, there are relatively few employer organisations in the sector. This can be explained by the particular nature of the employers in public administration. As authorities, state bodies, ministries, agencies, etc., they are frequently equipped with the right to unilaterally determine the terms of employment of the public administration employees within their purview, even if formal or informal negotiations come first. As they are immediately involved in this determination process, there is no reason to delegate a negotiating mandate to an intermediate instance. Employer organisations only emerge when there is need for coordination of wage policies and the regulation of employment relations due to the existence of various distinct employers in a (sub)sector. In public administration, a multiple employer structure can be found with regard to local state and regional authorities as well as in social insurance and the business-like segment (privatised services etc.). Across the 26 countries under consideration, only 19 associations could be identified. In five of the nine countries where employer organisations exist, only one single-employer organisation (in the meaning of a social partner organisation as defined earlier) has been established.

Of the employer organisations listed in Table 5, 52.6% have demarcated their domain in a way that sectionalistically overlaps and 47.4% have demarcated their domain in a way that is sectional with regard to the public administration sector. The high incidence of sectionalist overlaps is mainly because the employer organisations usually cover areas of the public sector that are broader than public administration (often covering education, health and social care), while simultaneously specifying their domain in terms of activities (for example, covering only one level of government or merely subsectoral activities such as taxation, social insurance, etc.). Sectionalist domains result from specifications in a way analogous to those outlined above. No domain demarcations that are overlapping with regard to, or congruent with, the sector exist.

In those four countries with a pluralist structure in relation to employer organisations (Denmark, Finland, Germany and Sweden), these associations have managed to arrive at non-competing relationships. Their activities are complementary to each other as a result of inter-associational differentiation by membership demarcation.

The unit of membership varies from one employer organisation to the other such that the figures given in Table 5 are not strictly comparable across associations and countries. Despite this, the data on membership show that density is very high. Virtually all the voluntary employer organisations for which data are documented report a density level within their (sectoral) domain which is equal or close to 100% in terms of both members and employees. Densities are of course significantly lower with regard to the sector in total, which results from domain demarcations that do not entirely cover the sector. The main reason for the extremely high levels of domain density is the public law status of the employers/employer organisations. The process of association is thus regularly a matter of political decision rather than of impartial deliberation. In this respect, the ‘voluntarism’ in joining an employer association has to be questioned.

Table 5: Domain coverage and membership organisations in public administration sector, 2007–2008
Country Employer association Domain coveragea Membership
Typeb Number Members in the sector Employees Employees in the sector
               
AT
BE
BG
CY
CZ
DE BKK TG S 1 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
  DGUV S 1 48 48 21,800 21,800
  TdL SO 1 14 14 680,000 n.a.
  TG Ersatzkassen S 1 6 6 35,000 35,000
  TgAOK S 1 17 17 59,640 59,640
  TgDRV S 1 16 16 35,000 35,000
  VKA SO 1 16 16 ~2,000,000 n.a.
DK DR SO 1 5 5 135,425 2,675
  KL SO 1 98 98 508,016 53,067
  SEA SO 0 n.a. n.a. 197,712 75,018
EE
EL
ES
FI KT SO* 0 496 n.a. 437,000 45,500
  VTML SO* 0 150 n.a. 121,000 67,000
HU
IE LGMSB SO 1 (0) ~100 ~100 30,000 n.a.
IT ARAN SO 0 9,138 8,696 2,778,862 1,056,800
LT
LU Syvicol S 1 116 116 9,450 9,450
LV LPDDA S 1 46 46 3,000 n.a.
MT
NL
PL
PT
RO
SE AV S 0 258 258 241,000 241,000
  SKL SO 1 310 310 1,100,000 121,000
SI
SK ZMOS S 1 2,832 2,832 n.a. n.a.
UK

Notes: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

aO = overlap; SO = sectional overlap; S = sectionalism; C = congruence; * = domain overlap. b 1 = voluntary membership; 0 = obligatory membership.

n.a. = not available.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009

Table 6: Density of employer organisations in public administration sector, 2007–2008
Country Employer organisation Density
Potential members Employees
Domain (%) Sector/ sectoral domain (%) Domain (%) Sector/ sectoral domain (%)
AT
BE
BG
CY
CZ
DE BKK TG n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
  DGUV 100.0 n.a./ 100.0 100.0 n.a./ 100.0
  TdL n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
  TG Ersatzkassen n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
  TgAOK 100.0 n.a./ 100.0 100.0 n.a./ 100.0
  TgDRV n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
  VKA n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
DK DR 100.0 n.a./ 100.0 100.0 1.9/ 100.0
  KL 100.0 n.a./ 100.0 100.0 37.6/ 100.0
  SEA 100.0 n.a./ 100.0 100.0 53.2/ 100.0
EE
EL
ES
FI KT 100.0 n.a./ 100.0 100.0 36.0/ 100.0
  VTML 100.0 n.a./ 100.0 100.0 53.0/ 100.0
HU
IE LGMSB n.a. n.a./ 100.0 n.a. n.a.
IT ARAN 100.0 99.8/ 100.0 100.0 68.7/ 100.0
LT
LU Syvicol 100.0 99.0/ 100.0 100.0 31.7/ 100.0
LV LPDDA n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
MT
NL
PL
PT
RO
SE AV 100.0 n.a./ 100.0 100.0 n.a./ 100.0
  SKL 100.0 n.a./ 100.0 100.0 n.a./ 100.0
SI
SK ZMOS ~95.0 n.a./ ~95.0 n.a. n.a.
UK

Notes: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

n.a. = not available.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009

Table 7: Collective bargaining, consultation and affiliations of employer organisations in education sector, 2007–2008
Country Employer association Collective bargaininga Consultation National and European affiliationsb
 
 
AT
BE
BG
CY
CZ
DE BKK TG Yes n.a.  
  DGUV Yes Yes  
  TdL Yes Yes EFEE
  TG Ersatzkassen Yes No  
  TgAOK Yes Yes  
  TgDRV Yes n.a.  
  VKA Yes Yes CEEP, HOSPEEM
DK DR Yes Yes CEEP
  KL Yes Yes CEEP
  SEA Yes Yes CEEP
EE
EL
ES
FI KT Yes Yes CEEP, CEMR
  VTML Yes Yes CEEP
HU
IE LGMSB Yes Yes  
IT ARAN Yes Yes CEEP
LT
LU Syvicol Yes** Yes CoR, CEMR, CLRA
LV LPDDA Yes** Yes LDDK
MT
NL
PL
PT
RO
SE AV Yes Yes CEEP
  SKL Yes Yes CoR, CEEP, CEMR, CLRAE
SI
SK ZMOS Yes Yes  
UK

Notes: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

a** = de facto negotiations or consultation.

bNational affiliations are in italics. For the national level, only cross-sectoral (peak level) associations are listed. For the European level, only sectoral associations are listed. Affiliations in brackets are indirect via lower level affiliates or higher level affiliations.

n.a. = not available.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009

Collective employment regulation and its actors

Table 4 lists all those trade unions engaged in sector-related collective bargaining/regulation. A number of cases of competition for bargaining/de facto negotiation/consultation capacities have been identified (for example, in Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden) due to:

  • numerous overlaps of inter-union domains;
  • often unclear domain demarcation;
  • some rivalry for members.

In the case of the sector-related employer organisations, no cases of competition over collective employment regulation capacities have been reported.

Table 8 provides an overview of the system of sector-related collective regulation in the 26 countries under consideration in this study. The importance of collective bargaining as a means of employment regulation is measured by calculating the total number of employees covered by collective bargaining as a proportion of the total number of employees within a certain segment of the economy (Traxler et al, 2001). Accordingly, the sector’s rate of collective bargaining coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective agreement to the total number of employees in the sector.

For the purpose of this study, this concept of calculating the intensity of employment regulation is extended to areas where collective bargaining in the genuine sense is not established, but other forms of collective regulation (that is, de facto negotiations and consultation) take place. This means that, in addition to the rate of collective bargaining coverage, the rate of collective employment regulation is calculated for each country. In line with the definition of collective bargaining coverage, the sector’s rate of collective employment regulation coverage is defined as the ratio of the number of employees covered by any kind of collective regulation (that is, collective bargaining, de facto negotiations and consultation) to the total number of employees in the sector.

To delineate the bargaining system, two further indicators are used: The first indicator refers to the relevance of multi-employer bargaining, compared with single-employer bargaining. Multi-employer bargaining is defined as being conducted by an employer organisation on behalf of the employer side. In the case of single-employer bargaining, the company or its divisions is the party to the agreement. This includes the cases where two or more companies jointly negotiate an agreement. The relative importance of multi-employer bargaining, measured as a percentage of the total number of employees covered by a collective agreement, therefore provides an indication of the impact of the employer organisations on the overall collective bargaining process.

However, this indicator is of minor relevance to this study since the distinction between single-employer and multi-employer bargaining is not applicable to large parts of the public administration sector. Although some units (such as social insurance institutions and some privatised services) within the public administration sector may conduct single-employer bargaining, in most cases the boundaries between single- and multi-employer bargaining are blurred. This becomes evident in cases where an employer representative conducts collective bargaining on behalf of a single authority, but the results are subsequently ratified also by other authorities. Moreover, the question arises as to whether an all-encompassing collective entity (such as a central authority embracing a large number of administrative units) should be classified as an individual employer or not. Since a meaningful distinction between single- and multi-employer bargaining and negotiations is not possible with regard to the public administration sector, this indicator is not taken into account in this study.

The second indicator considers whether statutory extension schemes have been applied to the sector. For reasons of brevity, this analysis is confined to extension schemes that widen the scope of a collective agreement to employers not affiliated to the signatory employer organisation; extension regulations targeting the employees are therefore not included in the research. Regulations concerning the employees are not significant to this analysis for two reasons. First, extending a collective agreement to the employees who are not unionised in the company covered by the collective agreement is a standard of the International Labour Organization (ILO), aside from any national legislation. Secondly, employers have good reason to extend a collective agreement concluded by them, even when they are not formally obliged to do so; otherwise, they would set an incentive for their workforce to unionise.

In comparison with employee-related extension procedures, schemes that target the employers are far more significant for the strength of collective bargaining in general and multi-employer bargaining in particular. This is because the employers are capable of refraining from both joining an employer organisation and entering single-employer bargaining in the context of a purely voluntaristic system. Therefore, employer-related extension practices increase the coverage of multi-employer bargaining. Moreover, when it is pervasive, an extension agreement may encourage more employers to join the controlling employer organisation; such a move then enables them to participate in the bargaining process and to benefit from the organisation’s related services in a situation where the respective collective agreement will bind them in any case (Traxler et al, 2001).

Table 8: System of sectoral collective bargaining, 2007–2008
Country Collective regulationa (%+) Genuine collective bargaining (GCB) (%b) Extension practicesc
AT 100 5–10 0
BE 100 0 0
BG 21 21 0
CY ~100 ~100 0
CZ 100 45.4 0
DE >90 >90 0
DK 100 100 0
EE n.a. (>16) n.a. (>16) 0
ES n.a. n.a. 0
FI 100 100 2
GR 100 n.a. 0
HU 6 6 0
IE 99 99 2
IT 100 n.a. (GCB prevailing) 0
LT n.a. 10 0
LU 100 10 2
LV n.a. n.a. n.a.
MT 100 71 0
NL 100 0 0
PL n.a. n.a. 0
PT 100 minor part 0
RO 100 minor part 0
SE 100 100 1
SI 100 100 0
SK 85 85 0
UK 95 95 0

Notes: a Genuine collective bargaining, de facto negotiations and consultation. b As a percentage of the sector’s total number of employees. c Extension practices (including functional equivalents to extension provisions, that is, obligatory membership and labour court rulings). Cases of functional equivalents are in brackets.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009

Collective bargaining coverage

As outlined earlier, this study distinguishes two kinds of measurement of collective regulation intensity. Whereas collective regulation coverage in a broad sense relates to a wide range of activities aimed at regulating the employment terms (including genuine bargaining or a recurrent practice of de facto negotiations and/or consultation), collective bargaining coverage in a strict sense takes only genuine collective bargaining into account. Since the collective bargaining coverage rate for the sector is recorded only as unadjusted percentage (this means the percentage is not adjusted for employees which are not equipped with genuine bargaining rights), the collective regulation coverage rate must be as high as the genuine collective bargaining coverage rate (in cases where there is no form of employment regulation other than genuine bargaining) or higher (in cases where there are such forms of alternative employment regulation).

In terms of the sector’s collective regulation coverage, 19 of the 21 countries for which related data are available record a very high coverage rate of at least 85%, in most cases coming close to or reaching 100%. There are only two countries that record sector-related collective regulation at a very or rather low level, with collective employment regulation coverage rates of 6% (Hungary) and 21% (Bulgaria).

In at least these two countries, the employment terms of the majority of the public administration employees appear to be unilaterally determined by the authorities, without regular consultation of the trade unions. This may hold true also of the Baltic countries as well as Poland, but for these countries no related data have been reported. Nevertheless, it can be inferred from these findings that the sector’s industrial relations structures are:

  • well-established in at least three-quarters of the 26 EU Member States studied – even if formal, genuine collective bargaining is scarce or completely lacking in these countries;
  • apparently underdeveloped in about a quarter of the countries.

Closer examination reveals that:

  • collective employment regulation coverage rates are high in the EU15 (although there are no data available for Spain);
  • sectoral regulation standards widely vary between those countries joining the EU between 2004 and 2007.

High coverage rates regarding collective employment regulation may stem from either genuine collective bargaining or other forms of collective regulation or a mixture of both. In 11 countries (Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Malta, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and the UK), high collective regulation coverage in the sector can be traced back to prevailing or exclusive genuine collective bargaining arrangements. In at least seven countries (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Luxembourg and the Netherlands), genuine collective bargaining takes place scarcely or is completely lacking.

However, even if genuine bargaining plays only a minor part or is completely absent, collective regulation coverage may be very high as is the case of Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Romania. In these cases, de facto negotiations and/or regular consultation practices somehow replace genuine collective bargaining when it comes to determining the terms of employment, while genuine bargaining is, in at least part of these cases, more or less confined to the private sector. Conversely, the low collective regulation coverage rates of Bulgaria and Hungary originate exclusively from genuine bargaining arrangements and no other forms of collective employment regulation exist. Low collective bargaining coverage rates in the Baltic countries partially ensue from denials of the relevant authorities to enter negotiations with the trade unions, as is the case of Latvia (state police) and Lithuania (Ministry of Interior).

The high intensity of collective employment regulation in the public administration sector, with the exception of only a few central and eastern European countries, may be explained by:

  • the high density rates of the trade unions;
  • all-encompassing employer representation by either the administrative bodies themselves or representative employer organisations, which record high density rates as well;
  • increasing pressure to modify the unilateral regulation of terms and conditions of employment by incorporating more democratic procedures of participation;
  • the still prevalent uniform nature of employment relationship(s) which facilitates the aggregation of interests of the public administration employees;
  • bargaining and negotiation structures which come close to the model of multi-employer bargaining in the private sector.

Other determinants, which usually account for high coverage rates in the private sector, such as the existence of pervasive extension practices, are relevant only in a few countries (for example, Finland, Ireland and Luxembourg).

Participation in public policymaking

Interest associations may partake in public policy in two basic ways. First, they may be consulted by the authorities on matters affecting their members, and secondly, they may be represented on ‘corporatist’, in other words tripartite, committees and boards of policy concertation. This study considers only cases of consultation and corporatist participation that relate explicitly to sector-specific matters. Consultation processes are not necessarily institutionalised and, therefore, the organisations consulted by the authorities may vary according to the issues to be addressed and also over time, depending on changes in government. Moreover, the authorities may initiate a consultation process on occasional rather than a regular basis.

Given this variability, only those sector-related trade unions and employer organisations that are ‘usually’ consulted are flagged in Tables 3–7. Depending on country-specific regulations and practices, the sector-specific associations may directly or indirectly participate in public policy. Indirect participation takes place via their affiliation to a higher-level association which obtains participatory rights.

Trade unions

Almost all the sector-related trade unions for which related data are available are regularly consulted by the authorities and at least part of them in all the 27 countries (apart from France for which no data are available) under consideration. Since a multi-union system has been established in all of these countries apart from Cyprus, the possibility cannot be ruled out that the authorities favour certain trade unions over others or that the trade unions compete for participation rights. In at least 19 countries with a multi-union system where a noticeable practice of consultation is observed, any of the existing trade unions may take part in the consultation process. By contrast, there are four countries (the Czech Republic, Finland, Greece and Spain) where consultation rights are awarded only to certain trade unions while others are left out of consideration. However, only in two countries (Finland and Spain) is there is evidence in the public administration sector of inter-union conflicts over participation in public policy matters.

Employer organisations

As is the case of the trade unions, a vast majority (at least 16 out of 19) of the sector-related employer organisations are involved in consultation procedures. Only Germany with its multi-organisation system provides an example of selective consultation. In the other countries with pluralist systems (Denmark, Finland and Sweden), all the sector’s organisations are consulted. The same holds true of all countries with only one sector-related employer organisation.

In all the nine countries (Denmark, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Slovakia and Sweden) where employer organisations co-exist with trade unions, consultation rights are symmetrically attributed to the two sides of industry in that at least one organisation on each side is consulted.

In those countries where there is no employer association meeting the definition of a social partner, the employers are not necessarily excluded from consultation procedures. Under these circumstances, the employers themselves, who are frequently part of the authorities, may be consulted. In cases where the employer is identical with the authority, the question of consultation is pointless.

Tripartite participation

Turning from consultation to tripartite participation, the findings reveal that genuinely sector-specific tripartite bodies have been established in only three (Denmark, Luxembourg and Slovakia) of the 26 countries under consideration (no information is available for France). Table 9 lists only four bodies of this kind and summarises their main properties. Other bodies listed in some country reports are not taken into account in this study because they either do not specifically target the public administration sector or are not tripartite in the sense of a clear-cut discriminability of (state) authorities and employer organisations.

Table 9: Tripartite sector-specific boards of public policy in the public administration sector, 2007–2008
Country Name of the body and scope of activity Origin Unions participating Business associations participating
DK Dialogue Forum for Public Management Agreement AC, FTF, LO, Ministry of Finance, SEA, KL, DR
LU Local Service Central Commission Statutory FGFC, FNCTTFEL Ministry for the Interior, Sylvicol
SK HSR SR: sector-specific legislation Statutory KOZ SR (SOZPZASS, SOZ ZO) ZMOS and government bodies
Government council: matters of public administration Agreement SLOVES ZMOS and government bodies

Note: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009


European level of interest representation

At European level, eligibility for consultation and participation in the social dialogue is linked to three criteria, as defined by the European Commission. Accordingly, a social partner organisation must have the following attributes:

  • be cross-industry or relate to specific sectors or categories, and be organised at European level;
  • consist of organisations that are themselves an integral and recognised part of Member States’ social partner structures and which have the capacity to negotiate agreements, as well as being representative of all Member States, as far as possible;
  • have adequate structures to ensure their effective participation in the consultation process.

Regarding social dialogue, the constituent feature is the ability of such organisations to negotiate on behalf of their members and to conclude binding agreements. Accordingly, this section on European associations of the public administration sector analyses the membership domain, the composition of their membership and the ability to negotiate of these organisations.

As detailed below, two sector-related European associations on the employee side are particularly significant in the public administration sector. The two are:

  • European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU);
  • European Confederation of Independent Trade Unions (CESI).

In 2005 EPSU and CESI established TUNED, the Trade Unions’ National and European Administration Delegation, with a view to establishing a sectoral social dialogue committee in central government administrations. TUNED consists of affiliates of EPSU and CESI and is coordinated by EPSU. The secretariats of both EPSU and CESI and their affected affiliates are directly involved in the ongoing informal European sectoral social dialogue.

On the employer side, there is no European business/employer association that would act as a social partner at European level at the time of the writing of this overview. This task is taken by the European Public Administration Network (EUPAN), which is an informal network of Directors General responsible for public administration in the Member States and the European Commission. Hence, EUPAN is mainly composed of government representatives rather than national business/employer organisations.

However, the informal nature of the European sectoral social dialogue for public administration means that neither TUNED nor EUPAN have so far been listed by the European Commission as a social partner organisation consulted under Article 154 of the EC Treaty. As a cooperation network for the purpose of sectoral social dialogue, TUNED consists of EPSU and CESI which are both recognised as EU sectoral social partners under Article 154 of the EC Treaty. EUPAN has confirmed its willingness to enhance the European social dialogue for public administration, noting that some of its members, should they on an individual and voluntary basis wish to do so, could create an employers' platform outside EUPAN to apply jointly with TUNED to the European Commission for the setting up of a sectoral social dialogue committee for central public administration.Therefore, both European organisations (TUNED and EUPAN) are analysed in this study. However, the particular composition of EUPAN means that the analysis below concentrates on EPSU and CESI (which form TUNED) as the relevant sector-specific European associations, while providing supplementary information on others linked to the sector’s national industrial relations actors.

Membership domain

As indicated by its name, EPSU, which is affiliated to the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), organises public services. Its membership domain therefore overlaps in relation to the public administration sector in that its membership covers four broad sectors:

  • national and EU administrations;
  • local and regional governments;
  • health and social services;
  • utilities and water.

The membership domain of CESI also overlaps with regard to the sector. CESI is a general trade union confederation with unspecific membership domain, covering both national and European trade unions, including umbrella organisations.

Membership composition

Although the country coverage of EPSU and CESI extends beyond the 27 Member States, the report considers only the members of these 27 countries. Table 10 lists the membership of EPSU and CESI of sector-related trade unions drawn from the country reports.

Table 10: Members of EPSU and CESI, 2009a,b
  EPSU CESI
AT GdG-KMSfB, GPA-djp, GÖD, vida GdG-KMSfB, GÖD
BE CGSP/ACOD, FSCSP/FCSOD, SLFP/VSOA UNSP/NUOD
BG FITUGO, FTU-HS, PK Admin  
CY PASYDY  
CZ ČMOSA, OSH, STATORG,  
DE Marburger Bund, ver.di DBB, (DHV/CGB), (GdS/DBB), (GOED/CGB)
DK 3Fd, CO II FAF, DASW, (DF/OAO), DJOEF, DMd, (DTS/CO II), (FCE/CO II), FOA, (HF/OAO), HK, HKKF, (KFF/CO II), (PU/CO II), (TAT/CO II)  
EE ROTAL  
EL ADEOY  
ES ELA-STV, FEP-USO, FSC-CCOO, FSP-UGT CSI-CSIF
FI AEK, JHL, (JUKO/AKAVA), Jyty, KTN, Pardia, Talentia TVMLd
FR CGT-SPd, FFAE-CFDTd, FGF-FOd, INTERCO-CFDTd, UFCFP-CGCd, UGFF-CGTd, UNSA Fonctionnairesd  
HU   (BRDSZ), KSZSZ, MKKSZ, RKDSZd
IE AHCPS, CPSU, Impact, PSEU, SIPTUd (PDFORA), (POA)
IT FP CGIL, FPS CISL (CISAL-DIRFOR/CISAL), (Confsal Salfi/Confsal), (Confsal UNSA/Confsal), (Confsal VV.F/Confsal), (FIALP/CISAL), FLP, (SNADIP/CISAL), (UGL PCM), (USPP/UGL), (USPPI Dirigenti/UGL)
LT LTUSEd, LVTPF, LDFd
LU LCGBd, (OGB-L/CGTL) CGFP, FGFC
LV LAKRS LAADAd, LVIPUFDAd
MT GWU UHM
NL Abvakabo FNV, CNV Publieke Zaak (ACP-CNV), CNV Publieke Zaak, NCF
PL FZZPGKiTc, SRSPc WZZ-SOd
PT SINTAP, STAL, STE USId
RO Columna, FNPR, (FNSA/Alianta Sed Lex), (FNSF/Alianta Sed Lex), (FNSMPS/Alianta Sed Lex), (FSSR/Alianta Sed Lex), Publisind (FNSJ/CSN Meridian), FSANP, (SAP Consilium/CSN Meridian), (SAP Forta Legii/CSN Meridian), (SIFPPCAP/CSN Meridian), SNPPC, (SNPV ‘Pro Lex’/CSN Meridian)
SE Akademikerförbundet SSR, Försvarsförbundet, Kommunal, (OFR), SEKO, SKTF, ST  
SI SZSVS SCS
SK OZH, SOZ ZO, SOZKaSOd, SOZPZASS SLOVES
UK FBU, FDA, GMB, NIPSA, PCSU, Prospect, Unison, Unite POA
Negotiating mandate General mandate, conferred by the members General mandate, conferred by the members

Notes: See Annex for list of abbreviations and full names of organisations.

aMembership list confined to the sector-related associations of the countries under consideration. b Associations in brackets are sector-related unions listed in Tables 3 and 4 that are indirectly affiliated via national higher-order associations or lower-level affiliates. c Not involved in collective regulation. d No information available on involvement in sector-related collective regulation.

Source: EIRO national centres, 2009

EPSU

At least one affiliation is recorded in each country under consideration apart from Hungary. In most countries multiple memberships occur, while only one affiliation is found in Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Latvia, Malta and Slovenia. On aggregate, EPSU counts 84 direct and 14 indirect (via national higher-order associations or lower-level affiliates) sector-related affiliations from the countries under examination. Almost a third of the 256 trade unions listed in Tables 3 and 4 are directly affiliated to EPSU. From the information available on sectoral membership of the national trade unions on their relative strength, it can be concluded that EPSU covers the sector’s most important labour representatives in most countries. Of the 85 EPSU direct and indirect members, for which related data are available, 83 are involved in bargaining or ‘quasi-bargaining’ related to the public administration sector; only two affiliates from Poland are not.

CESI

Of the 27 Member States, CESI has 19 under its umbrella through sector-related associational members from these countries. Multiple memberships (including indirect members) exist in nine of these countries (Austria, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Romania). CESI counts 25 direct and 21 indirect sector-related affiliates from the 27 countries under consideration, which means that around 18% of the trade unions listed in Tables 3 and 4 are directly or indirectly affiliated to CESI. In those countries where CESI affiliations occur, trade unions both with high and low membership strength in the sector are frequently covered. All 39 direct and indirect CESI affiliates for which data are available are involved in sector-related collective bargaining/regulation. Compared with union EPSU, which has a high level of representativeness in the public administration sector (particularly in terms of countries and absolute numbers of affiliations), CESI appears to be less present.

Capacity to negotiate

The third criterion of representativeness at the European level refers to an organisation’s capacity to negotiate on behalf of its members. EPSU is given a mandate to negotiate in matters of the European social dialogue according to its constitution. CESI has a general mandate to negotiate on behalf of its members as well.

On the employer side, EUPAN is an informal European-wide platform composed of government representatives for the exchange of views, experiences and good practice to improve the quality of administration,. However, it does not have, so far, a mandate from national governments to negotiate on matters of the European social dialogue.

As a proof of the weight of both EPSU and CESI on the employee side and EUPAN on the employer side, it is useful to look at other European organisations that may be important representatives of the sector. This can be done by reviewing the other European organisations to which the sector-related trade unions and employer associations are affiliated.

For the trade unions, these affiliations are listed in Table 4 which shows there are numerous affiliations to European organisations other than EPSU and CESI. However, these memberships are so widely dispersed across the trade unions and countries that clusters of affiliations are difficult to find. For reasons of brevity, only those European organisations that cover at least three countries are listed below:

  • Union Network International – Europe (UNI-Europa), with 11 affiliations covering six countries;
  • European Federation of Public Service Employees (Eurofedop), with 11 affiliations and eight countries (Eurofedop has been a member of CSEI since 2009 and is expected to fully included into the CESI structure during 2011);
  • European Confederation of Police (EuroCop), with eight affiliations and seven countries;
  • European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions (EFFAT), with five affiliations and four countries;
  • European Transport Workers’ Federation (ETF), with five affiliations and three countries;
  • Union of Finance Personnel in Europe (UFE) and the European Council of Police Trade Unions (CESP), with three affiliations and three countries each.

However, the affiliations listed in Table 7 may not necessarily be exhaustive. Nevertheless and despite the large number of affiliations to European organisations other than EPSU and CESI, this overview underlines the status of these two associations as the sector’s principal labour representatives. This is primarily because some of the affiliations to other European organisations, in particular UNI-Europa, reflect the overlapping domains of the affiliates rather than a real reference of the affiliations as such to the public administration sector.

Table 7 provides a similar overview of European organisations to which the sector-related employer organisations are affiliated. The organisational links of sector-related employer associations with European federations are of particular interest in two cases:

  • European Centre of Employers and Enterprises providing Public Services (CEEP), with nine affiliations covering five countries,
  • Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CEMR), with three affiliations and three countries.

The numerous affiliations to CEEP somewhat question the alleged role of EUPAN as the unmatched European industrial relations actor on behalf of employers in the sector. This is because CEEP, as a cross-sectoral organisation, claims to gather member associations in a field of activity which overlaps sectionalistically with the public administration sector.

At the time of writing this overview, EUPAN has confirmed its willingness to further enhance the European social dialogue for public administration, bearing in mind that some of its members, on a voluntary basis and outside EUPAN, could set up an employer's platform as an organisation aiming to participate in a sectoral social dialogue committee in the near future. According to the European Commission, there are issues as to whether CEEP could host or join the future employers’ platform when a sectoral social dialogue committee is set up. Therefore, it is anticipated that CEEP would remain an actor at the cross-sectoral level while the future employers’ platform would be the actor at the sectoral level. As the recognised European social partner on behalf of the employers’ side in the sector, the future employers’ platform will be an important European voice of business in public administration.


Commentary

This study has highlighted some key properties of the representational system of the public administration sector compared with other sectors.

At national level, pronounced pluralism characterises the associational system of labour. On the employer side, governmental entities equipped with comprehensive competences in matters of industrial relations usually allow the emergence of employer organisations only in niches of public administration. Hence, the number of (encompassing) employer organisations is relatively low, in particular in relation to the extremely high number of trade unions within an associational system with large-scale proliferation tendencies. These highly pluralist structures on the employee side can be traced back to the sector’s traditional, marked differentiation along numerous well-demarcated occupational and professional lines.

Unionisation at national level is remarkably high, in particular compared with most other service sectors. The same holds true for employer density. This does not come as a surprise, given the fact that public ownership buttresses the organisation of both sides of industry. Likewise, the segmentation of the sector’s workforce by often highly qualified, often state-licensed professions and, concomitantly, the associational ‘landscape’ of labour creates a ‘small size effect’ that helps overcome free-riding tendencies. This is because smaller trade unions whose membership domain is tailored to their constituency can set selective incentives to (potential) members more easily compared with larger, general unions (Olson, 1965).

These generally high levels of organisation, along with encompassing government bodies operating as industrial relations actors, translate into high levels of collective employment regulation, either in the form of genuine collective bargaining or de facto negotiations and consultation. This applies especially to the ‘older’ Member States (EU15), whereas the employment regulation coverage varies between 2004–2007 accession countries.

The nature of interest representation at European level contrasts strongly between the two sides of industry. At the time of writing, on the employer side, the membership unit of EUPAN, a network of Directors General responsible for public administration across the EU Member States, are government bodies rather than national employer organisations. Thus, the latter are affiliated, if at all, to European employer organisations other than the main industrial relations actor on behalf of the employers. However, negotiations are underway, potentially leading to setting up an organisation representing the interests of Employers in public administration and which will be an important European voice of business in public administration In contrast, on the side of labour the high degree of organisation at national level feeds through to the European level, which is manifested in the encompassing coverage, in particular, of EPSU.

Georg Adam, Department of Industrial Sociology, University of Vienna


References

Olson, M., The logic of collective action: public goods and the theory of groups, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, 1965.

Traxler, F., ‘The metamorphoses of corporatism’, European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2004, pp. 571–598.

Traxler, F., Blaschke, S. and Kittel, B., National labour relations in internationalised markets, Oxford University Press, 2001.


Annex: List of abbreviations

Organisations in Member States

Country Abbreviation Full name of organisation
AT GdG-KMSfB Municipal Employees’ and Arts, Media, Sports and Liberal Professions’ Union
  GÖD Union of Public Employees
  GPA-djp Union of Salaried Employees, Graphical Workers and Journalists
  ÖGB Austrian Trade Union Federation
  vida vida
BE CGSLB/ACLVB Federation of Liberal Trade Unions of Belgium
  CGSP/ACOD General Confederation of Public Services
  CSC/ACV Confederation of Christian Trade Unions
  FGTB/ABVV Belgian General Federation of Labour’s Professional Confederation
  FSCSP/FCSOD Federation of Christian Public Service Unions
  SLFP/VSOA Free Trade Union of Civil Servants
  UNSI/NUOV National Union of Independent Trade Unions
  UNSP/NUOD National Public Services Union
BG CITUB Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria
  CL Podkrepa Confederation of Labour Podkrepa
  FITUB Federation of Independent Trade Unions in the Bulgarian Army
  FITUGO Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Governmental Organisations
  FTU-HS Federation of Trade Unions in the Health Service
  NPU National Police Union
  PK Admin Union of Administrative Employees
  UD Union ‘Defence’
CY PASYDY Pancyprian Union of Public Servants
CZ ČMKOS Czech–Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions
  ČMOSA Czech–Moravian Trade Union of Civilian Employees of the Army
  ITUCMD Independent Trade Union of the Czech Ministry of Defence
  NOS PČR Independent Trade Union of Police Corps in the Czech Republic
  OSH Czech Firefighters’ Union
  STATORG Trade Union of State Bodies and Organisations
DE BKK TG Collective Bargaining Association of the Company Health Insurance Fund (Tarifgemeinschaft der Betriebskrankenkassen)
  CGB Christian Federation of Trade Unions
  DBB German Civil Service Association
  DGB Confederation of German Trade Unions
  DGUV Association of German Statutory Accident Insurers
  DHV German Trade and Industry Employees’ Association
  GdP German Police Union
  GdS German Union of Social Security (Gewerkschaft der Sozialversicherung)
  GOED Christian Public Service Workers’ Union
  Marburger Bund Hospital Doctors’ Trade Union
  TdL Employers’ Association of German Länder
  TG Ersatzkassen Collective Bargaining Association of the White Collar Workers’ Health Insurance Fund (Tarifgemeinschaft der Ersatzkassen)
  TgAOK Collective Bargaining Association of the Public Health Insurance Fund (Tarifgemeinschaft der Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse)
  TgDRV Collective Bargaining Association of the German Pension System (Tarifgemeinschaft der Deutschen Rentenversicherung)
  ver.di United Services Union
  VKA Municipal Employers’ Association
DK 3F United Federation of Danish Workers
  AC Danish Confederation of Graduate Employee Associations
  CFU Danish Central Federation of State Employees
  CO II State Crown Servants Central Federation II
  CO II FAF Union of Parliament Employees of the State Crown Servants Central Federation
  CS Central Organisation of Regular Staff in the Military Services
  Dansk Metal Danish Metalworkers’ Union
  DASW Danish Association of Social Workers
  DJOEF Danish Association of Lawyers and Business People
  DKBL Association of Municipal Emergency Personnel (Det Kommunale Beredskabspersonales Landsforbund)
  DF Danish Union of Prison Employees
  DM Danish Association of Masters and PhDs (Dansk Magisterforening)
  DR Danish Regions
  DTS Union of Employees in Tax Administration
  FAC Group of Higher Ranking Officers in National Defence
  FCE Civil Department of National Defence
  FF Financial Services’ Union
  FKF Municipality Organisation of Frederiksberg
  FTF Confederation of White-Collar Workers and Crown Servants
  FOA Trade and Labour (Fag og Arbejde)
  HF Union of Salaried Employees at the Royal Court
  HK Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees in Denmark
  HKKF Union of Contract Soldiers and Corporals in the Danish Army
  KC Organisation of Local Government Managers
  KF Christian Trade Union
  KFF Union of Prison Services
  KKE Public Service Organisation in the Municipality of Copenhagen
  KL Local Government Denmark
  LO Danish Confederation of Trade Unions
  OAO Organisation of Public Employees in Denmark
  PU Police Union
  SEA State Employer’s Authority
  TAT Union of State Civil Servants in Administration
EE EAKL Estonian Trade Union Confederation
  ROTAL Confederation of Trade Unions of State and Local Government Employees
  TALO Estonian Employees’ Unions, Confederation
EL ADEDY Supreme Administrative Council of Greek Civil Servants
  GSEE Greek General Confederation of Labour
  POEIDD Panhellenic Federation of Public Employees governed by Private Law
ES CCOO Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions
  CIG Galician Trade Union Confederation
  CIG-Administración Federation of Public Administration of the Galician Trade Union Confederation
  CSI-CSIF Confederation of Independent and Civil Servants’ Unions
  ELA-STV Basque Workers’ Solidarity
  FEP-USO Federation of Public Employees of the Workers’ Trade Unionist Confederation
  FSC-CCOO Federation of Citizen Services of the Trade Union Confederation of Workers’ Commissions
  FSP-UGT Federation of Public Services of the General Workers’ Confederation
  UGT General Workers’ Confederation
FI AEK Central Union of Special Branches within AKAVA
  AKAVA Confederation of Unions for Academic Professionals
  JHL Trade Union for Public and Welfare Sectors
  JUKO Public Sector Negotiating Commission of AKAVA
  Jyty Federation of Public and Private Sector Employees
  KT Commission for Local Authority Employers
  KTN Confederation of Employees in Technical and Basic Service Professions
  Pardia Federation of Salaried Employees Pardia
  SAK Central Organisation of Finnish Trade Unions
  STTK Finnish Confederation of Salaried Employees
  Talentia Union of Professional Social Workers
  TVML Customs Officials’ Association
  VTML State Employer’s Office
FR CGT-SP General Confederation of Labour – Public Servants
  FFAE-CFDT Federation of Finance and Economic Affairs of the French Democratic Confederation of Labour
  FGF-FO General Federation of Civil Servants – Force Ouvriere
  INTERCO-CFDT Federation of Local Authority Workers – affiliated to the French Democratic Confederation of Labour
  UFCFP-CGC Federation of Managers in Government Service – affiliated to the General Confederation of Professional and Managerial Staff
  UGFF-CGT General Union of Associations of Civil Servants – affiliated to the General Confederation of Labour
  UNSA Functionnaires National Union of Autonomous Trade Unions – Civil Servants
HU BRDSZ Union of Employees of the Ministry of Interior Affairs and Law Enforcement
  ÉSZT Confederation of Unions of Professionals
  FRSZ Independent Police Trade Union
  HODOSZ Trade Union of Defence Employees
  KÖVIOSZ Trade Union of Public Service Employees in Environmental Protection and Water Management
  KSZSZ Public Service Trade Union Federation
  LIGA Democratic League of Independent Trade Unions
  MKKSZ Trade Union of Hungarian Civil Servants and Public Service Employees
  MSZOSZ National Association of Hungarian Trade Unions
  ODÉSZ Interest Representation Organisation of Parliament Employees
  RKDSZ Law Enforcement and Administrative Workers’ Union
  RV Association of Police Employees
  SZEF Trade Unions’ Cooperation Forum
IE AGSI Association of Garda Sergeants and Inspectors
  AHPCS Association of Higher Civil and Public Servants
  CPSU Civil and Public Services Union
  GRA Garda Representative Association
  ICTU Irish Congress of Trade Unions
  Impact Impact
  LGMSB Local Government Management Services Board
  PDFORRA Permanent Defence Force Other Ranks Representative Association
  POA Prison Officers’ Association
  PSEU Public Service Executive Union
  SIPTU Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union
IT ANM National Association of Magistrates
  ANPRI National Professional Association for Research
  AP Prefectural Association
  AP VV.F. Prefectural Association of the Italian Fire Brigade
  ARAN Agency for Public Sector Collective Bargaining
  CGIL General Confederation of Italian Workers
  CIDA Confederation for Managerial and Professional Staff
  CIDA FP Public Service Union of the Confederation for Managerial and Professional Staff
  CIDA UNADIS National Union of State Managers – affiliated to Confederation for Managerial and Professional Staff (CIDA)
  CISAL Italian Confederation of Workers’ Autonomous Trade Unions
  CISL Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions
  COCER Aeronautica Militare Central Council of Air Force Representation
  COCER Carabinieri Central Council of Carabinieri Representation
  COCER Esercito Central Council of Army Representation
  COCER Guardia di Finanza Central Council of Finance Police Representation
  COCER Marina Central Council of Navy Representation
  COISP-UP-FPS-ADP –PNFI-MPS Coordination of Trade Union Independence of the Police Force – Trade Union of the Aerial Navigation Personnel of the State Police – Federation of the State Police – Association of Police – Police New Independent Forces – Movement for Safety
  Confedir National Confederation of Management and Managerial Staff in the Civil Service
  Confsal General Confederation of Autonomous Workers’ Trade Unions
  Confsal Salfi General Confederation of Autonomous Workers’ Trade Unions – Financial Workers
  Confsal UNSA General Confederation of Autonomous Trade Unions – Union of National Autonomous Unions (UNSA)
  Confsal VV.F. General Confederation of Autonomous Workers’ Trade Unions – Firefighters
  CSA Regioni e Autonomie Locali Autonomous Trade Union Alliance of the Regions and Local Institutions
  CUB Unitary Rank and File Committees
  DIPRECOM Autonomous Trade Union of Managers and Cabinet Executives
  DIREL National Federation of Local Authority Managers
  DIRER National Federation of Managers and Managerial Staff of the Regions
  DIRFOR National Trade Union of Managers and Managerial Staff
  DIRSTAT National Trade Union of Managers, Deputy Managers, Officials, Professionals and Public Administrators
  Federazione Consap Italia Sicura Autonomous Trade Union Confederation of Italian Safety Police
  Federazione Nazionale Corpo Forestale dello Stato – UGL National Federation of State Forestry Workers – affiliated to the General Union of Workers (UGL)
  Federazione Sindacale Forestale SAPECOFS CISAL – DIRFOR Federation of Trade Unions of Forestry Workers – Federation of Autonomous Trade Unions of Forestry Workers – Italian Confederation of Workers’ Autonomous Trade Unions – National Trade Union of Managers and Managerial Staff
  Federmanager National Federation of Industrial Company Managers
  FIALP CISAL Autonomous Italian Federation of Public Workers
  FIR CISL Federation of Innovation and Research
  FLC CGIL Knowledge Workers’ Federation – affiliated to General Confederation of Italian Workers (CGIL)
  FLEPAR Federation of Legal Quangos (Federazione Legali Enti Parastatali)
  FLP Public Administration and Services Workers’ Federation
  FNS CISL National Federation of Safety – affiliated to Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions (CISL)
  FP CGIL Public Service Union – affiliated to General Confederation of Italian Workers (CGIL)
  FP CGIL/Coordinamento Nazionale VV.F National firefighters section of the Public Service Union (FP CGIL)
  FP CGIL/Polizia Penitenziaria Prison guards section of the Public Service Union (FP CGIL)
  FP CGIL/CFS Forestry workers section of the Public Service Union (FP CGIL)
  FPS CISL Federation of Public and Service Workers – affiliated to Italian Confederation of Workers’ Trade Unions (CISL)
  FSA CNPP Autonomous Trade Union Federation – National Coordination of Prison Guards
  FSI Independent Trade Union Federation
  FSP UGL Trade Union Federation of Police – affiliated to General Labour Union (UGL)
  OSAPP Autonomous Trade Union of Prison Guards
  RdB CUB PI Confederation of Trade Unions of Civil Servants (Rappresentanze sindacali di base – Confederazione unitaria di base – Pubblico impiego)
  RdB CUB VV.F Confederation of Trade Unions of Firefighters (Rappresentanze sindacali di base – Confederazione unitaria di base – Vigili del Fuoco)
  SAP Autonomous Police Trade Union (Sindacato Autonomo di Polizia)
  SAPAF Autonomous Trade Union of Environmental Forestry Police
  SAPPE Autonomous Trade Union of Prison Guards
  SIAP Police Trade Union (Sindacato di Polizia)
  SILP Police Workers’ Union – affiliated to General Confederation of Italian Workers (CGIL)
  SINAPPE National Autonomous Trade Union of Prison Guards
  SINDIR VV.F. National Trade Union of Managers and Managerial Staff of the Italian Fire Brigade
  SINPREF National Trade Union of Prefecture Officials
  SIPRE Presidential Trade Union
  SIULP Italian Trade Union of Police Workers
  SNADIP National Trade Union of Prefecture Managers
  SNAPRECOM Independent National Trade Union of the Presidency of the Cabinet
  UGL General Union of Workers
  UGL PCM General Union of Work – Presidency of the Cabinet
  UIL Union of Italian Workers
  UILFPL Federation of Local Authority Workers – affiliated to Union of Italian Workers (UIL)
  UILPA Public Administration Workers’ Union – affiliated to Union of Italian Workers (UIL)
  UILPA Coordinamento Nazionale VV.F. Union of Public Administrators in the National Fire Coordination Service
  UILPA Corpo Forestale dello Stato Union of Public Administrators in the State Forestry Department
  UILPS State Police Workers’ Union
  UNSA Union of National Autonomous Trade Unions
  USI RdB Ricerca National Trade Union of Researchers of the Union of Italian Trade Unions
  USPP Trade Union of Prison Guards
  USPPI Dirigenti Union of Public–Private Employment Professionals – Managers
LT LDF Lithuanian Labour Federation
  LPSK Lithuanian Trade Unions Confederation
  LTUSE Lithuanian Trade Union of State Employees
  LVRSRPS Lithuanian Trade Union of Constables and Police Employees
  LVTPF Lithuanian Trade Union of Civil Servants
LU CGFP General Confederation of Civil Servants
  CGTL General Confederation of Labour Luxembourg
  FGFC Local Government Civil Service Union
  FNCTTFEL National Federation of Luxembourg Railway and Transport Workers and Civil Servants
  LCGB Confederation of Christian Trade Unions
  NVGL Neutrale Verband Gemeng Lëtzebuerg
  OGB-L Luxembourg Confederation of Independent Trade Unions
  Syvicol Association of Luxembourg Towns and Municipalities
LV EALLG Employer Association of Latvian Local Governments
  LAADA Latvian Trade Union of Medical and Nursing Staff
  LAKRS Latvian Trade Union of Public Service and Transport Workers
  LAPA Latvian United Trade Union of Police Workers
  LBAS Latvian Free Trade Union Confederation
  LDDK Latvian Employers’ Confederation
  LPDDA Latvian Association of Employers of Municipalities
  LVIPUFDA Union of State Institution, Local Businesses and Financial Workers
  LVSADA Latvian Trade Union of Health and Social Care Workers
  TULG Trade Union of Local Government Workers
  TUSSF Trade Union of Employees of State Institutions, Self-governments and the Finance Sector
MT CMTU Confederation of Malta Trade Unions
  FORUM Forum Unions Malta
  GWU General Workers' Union
  UHM Union of United Workers
  UPAP-MEPA Union of Professionals of the Malta Environment and Planning Authority
  UPISP Union of Public Services’ Architects and Engineers
NL Abvakabo FNV Public Service Workers’ Union – affiliated to the Dutch Trade Union Federation (FNV)
  AC Civil Servants Centre
  ACP CNV General Christian Police Union – affiliated to Christian Trade Union Federation (CNV)
  ANPV General Dutch Police Association
  BARI Union for Legal Clerical Personnel
  BPSAG Union of Prison Guards
  CMHF Union for Managerial and Professional Civil Servants
  CNV Christian Trade Union Federation
  CNV Dienstenbond Services Union of the Christian Trade Union Federation
  CNV Publieke Zaak Public Sector Union of the Christian Trade Union Federation
  De Unie De Unie [general independent union]
  FNV Dutch Trade Union Federation
  MHP Federation of Managerial and Professional Staff Unions
  NCF Union of Taxation and Customs Personnel
  NPB FNV Dutch Police Union – affiliated to the Dutch Trade Union Federation (FNV)
  VBM/NOV Union for Defence Personnel
  VCPS Union of Workers in the Collective and Private Sector
  VMHP Association for Middle-ranking and Senior Police Officers
  VPW Union of Transport and Public Works Personnel
PL FZZPGKiT Trade Unions Federation of Municipal and Local Economy Employees in Poland
  KK NSZZ Solidarność Military Employees Section of the Independent Self-Governing Trade Union Solidarity
  KRZZPPP National Board of the Trade Unions of Print Industry Employees
  NSZZ Solidarność Independent and Self Governing Trade Union Solidarity
  NSZZ Solidarność SOZ Health Care Section of the Independent and Self Governing Trade Union Solidarity
  NSZZPW Independent Self-Governing Trade Union of Military Employees
  OPZZ All-Poland Alliance of Trade Unions
  RKZZPOZiPS National Board of Trade Unions of Employees in Healthcare and Social Welfare
  SRSP Public Services Secretariat of the „Solidarity”
  WZZ Solidarność –Oswiata Education section of the Free Trade Union Solidarity
PT ASJP Union Association of Portuguese Judges
  ASPP Union Association of Police Professionals
  CGTP General Confederation of Portuguese Workers
  CGTP-IN General Confederation of Portuguese Workers – Intersindical
  SFJ Union of Judicial Officers
  SMMP Union of Merchant Seamen of Portugal
  SINTAP Union of Workers in Public Administration
  STAL Union of Local Authority Workers
  STE Technical Civil Servants’ Union
  STFPC Union of Public Administration Workers of Central Portugal
  STFPN Union of Public Administration Workers of the North
  STFPSA Union of Public Administration Workers of the South and the Azores
  STML Union of Workers of the Lisbon Municipality
  STRN Sul Union of Workers at Registries and Notary Offices of the South
  UGT General Workers’ Confederation
  USI Union of Independent Trade Unions
RO BNS National Trade Union Bloc
  Cartel Alfa National Trade Union Confederation ‘Cartel Alfa’
  CNSLR Frăţia National Confederation of Free Trade Unions Fraternity of Romania
  Columna Employees’ Federation from Public Central and Local Administration
  CSN Meridian National Trade Union Confederation ‘Meridian’
  FNPR National Trade Union Federation of Romanian Firefighters
  FNSA National Federation of Local Administration Trade Unions
  FNSF National Federation of Trade Unions in the Finance Sector
  FNSJ National Trade Union Federation of Court Workers
  FNSMPS National Trade Union Federation of Labour and Social Protection Trade Unions
  FSANP National Federation of Prison Administration Trade Unions
  FSSR Federation of Trade Unions for Statisticians
  PROJUST National Trade Union Federation PROJUST
  Publisind Trade Union Federation of Public Services
  SAP Consilium  
  SAP Forta Legii  
  SIFPPCAP  
  SNFP National Trade Union of Public Servants
  SNPPC National Trade Union of Policemen and Contractual Personnel
  SNPV ‘Pro Lex’ National Union of Police and Customs Officers ‘Pro Lex’ (Sindicatul National al Politistilor si Vamesilor)
  UFS Atlas Atlas Federation Trade Union
SE AV Swedish Agency for Government Employers
  Akademikerförbundet SSR Association for University Graduates in Economics, Social Science, Social Work etc.
  Försvarsförbundet Defence League
  Kommunal Municipal Workers’ Union
  Ledarna Association for Managerial and Professional Staff
  LO Swedish Confederation of Trade Unions
  OFR Public Employees’ Negotiation Council
  SACO-S Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations
  SEKO Union of Service and Communication Employees
  SKL Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions
  SKTF Swedish Union of Local Government Officers
  Skolledarförbundet Swedish Association of School Principals and Directors of Education
  ST Union of Civil Servants
SI PSS Police Trade union of Slovenia
  SCS Trade Union of Customs Officials of Slovenia
  SDDO Trade Union of State and Societal Bodies of Slovenia
  SDP Trade Union of Justice Workers
  SMO Trade Union of the Ministry of Defence
  SPGS Trade Union of Professional Fireman of Slovenia
  SPMO Trade Union of Slovenian Ministry of Defence Pilots
  SSD Trade Union of Slovene Diplomats
  SVAS Trade Union of the Government Agency of Slovenia
  SZSVS Trade Union of Health and Social Security of Slovenia
  ZSSS Confederation of Free Trade Unions of Slovenia
SK KOZ SR Confederation of Trade Unions of the Slovak Republic
  OZH Fire-fighters Union of the Slovak Republic
  OZJ SR Trade Union of Justice in the Slovak Republic
  OZP SR Police Trade Union in the Slovak Republic
  OZ ZVJS Trade Union of Corps of Prison and Court Guard
  SLOVES Slovak Trade Union of Public Administration
  SOZ ZO Trade Union of Civilian Employees of the Army of the Slovak Republic
  SOZKaSO Slovak Trade Union of Culture and Social Organisations
  SOZPZASS Slovak Trade Union of Employees in Health and Social Services
  ZMOS Association of Towns and Villages of Slovakia
UK FBU Fire Brigades Union
  FDA First Division Association
  GMB GMB [‘Britain’s General Union’]
  NIPSA Northern Ireland Public Service Alliance
  PCSU Public and Commercial Services Union
  POA Prisoner Officers’ Association
  Prospect Prospect [union for professionals in the public and private sectors]
  TUC Trades Union Congress
  Unison Unison [public service trade union]
  Unite Unite the Union

European organisations

  Abbreviation Full name of organisation
Europe CEEP European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest
  CEMR Council of European Municipalities and Regions
  CESI European Confederation of Independent Trade Unions
  CESP European Council of Police Trade Unions
  CLRAE Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe
  CoR Pensions Stewardship Council
  EFBWW European Federation of Building and Woodworkers
  EFEE European Federation of Education Employers
  EFFAT European Federation of Food, Agriculture and Tourism Trade Unions
  EFJ European Federation of Journalists
  EMCEF European Mine, Chemical and Energy Workers’ Federation
  EMF European Metalworkers’ Federation
  EPSU European Federation of Public Service Unions
  ETF European Transport Workers’ Federation
  EULOS European Network of Independent Unions of Local Authority Staffs
  E.U.R. European Union of Rechtspfleger
  Eurocadres Council of European Professional and Managerial Staff
  EuroCop European Confederation of Police
  Eurofedop European Federation of Employees in the Public Service
  Euromil European Organisation of Military Associations
  EUROWEA European Workers’ Education Association
  FERPA European Federation of Retired and Older Persons
  FEU Federation of the European Union Fire Officer Associations
  HOSPEEM European Hospital and Healthcare European Employers’ Association
  MEDEL Association of European Magistrates for Democracy and Freedom (Magistrats Européennes pour la Démocratie et Libertes)
  UFE Union of Finance Personnel in Europe
  UNI-Europa Union Network International – Europe

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