Publications

Search results: 858 items found
  • Article
    17 Prosinec 2003

    On 19 November 2003, the Swedish Confederation of Trade Unions
    (Landsorganisationen, LO) presented a new report on employment forms and
    working time (Anställningsformer och arbetstider 2003 [1]). The report is
    based on data from the official Labour Force Survey conducted by Sweden
    Statistics (Statistiska Centralbyrån) covering the period from the first
    quarter of 1990 to the first quarter 2003. The report is a follow-up to a
    similar exercise conducted in 2001 (SE0109101F [2]).

    [1] http://webb01.lo.se/home/lo/nyheter.nsf/0/FAA541D3A4D9AC25C1256DE3002DDD7A/$File/anstallningsformer2003.pdf
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-labour-market/fixed-term-employment-increases-significantly

  • Article
    17 Prosinec 2003

    A series of studies published in 2003 indicates that Italy’s 'hidden' or
    irregular economy continues to grow. According to the most recent figures,
    3.5 million workers out of a total labour force of around 23.5 million are
    irregular, a rate of around 15%. The growth of undeclared work is matched by
    that of the hidden economy, which is worth between 15.2% and 16.9% of GDP.
    The hidden economy is particularly important in the South and in certain
    economic sectors. The Cgil trade union confederation has called for new
    measures to deal with the problem.

  • Article
    17 Prosinec 2003

    On average, younger people in Finland today are better educated than older
    people - see table 1 below. At same time, structural changes in the economy
    have diminished the number of low-skill jobs and a low level of education can
    easily lead to long-term unemployment. Education is considered as the key to
    Finland's competitiveness and economic growth. The economic globalisation
    process especially has emphasised the importance of education and the supply
    of a highly-skilled labour force for a small open economy like Finland, which
    can not compete on low-skill jobs with the developing countries. It is thus
    an important question whether incentives in society encourage individual
    investment in a high level of education.

  • Article
    17 Prosinec 2003

    The European-level social partners in the commerce sector (EU9807115F [1]) -
    UNI-Europa Commerce for trade unions and EuroCommerce for employers -
    organised a conference in Brussels on 10-11 November 2003, which was attended
    by 150 company managers and trade union leaders. The conference participants
    discussed how social dialogue at different levels can promote high-quality
    employment in commerce. They focused on the link between corporate social
    responsibility (CSR) and the working conditions of commerce workers. One of
    the areas covered by the conference was good practice, and three leading
    European retailers - the UK-based Tesco, German-based Metro and French-based
    Carrefour- highlighted examples from their corporate strategy in this area.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/industrial-relations-undefined-working-conditions/the-european-social-dialogue-in-commerce-an-expanding-agenda

  • Article
    17 Prosinec 2003

    An extraordinary 'tripartite social summit' was held in Brussels on 11
    December 2003, the day before the European Council meeting (EU0312209F [1]).
    The decision to hold this meeting prior to this Council was taken at a
    European Council meeting in October 2003, during which concern was expressed
    by some Member States about the economic and employment situation in Europe.
    It was felt that the views of the social partners would play a vital role in
    restoring the potential for economic and employment growth in Europe.
    Tripartite social summits are usually held on the eve of the annual spring
    European Council meeting on economic and social issues (EU0304201N [2]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/european-council-fails-to-agree-on-constitutional-treaty
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/first-formal-tripartite-social-summit-takes-place

  • Article
    17 Prosinec 2003

    On 4 December 2003, the Estonian Employees’ Unions’ Confederation (Eesti
    Teenistujate Ametiliitude Keskorganisatsioon, TALO [1]) - Estonia's second
    largest central trade union organisation (EE0308101F [2]) - held a one-day
    strike to support its demands for pay increases for employees in educational
    and cultural activities. The main purpose of the strike was to demand wage
    increases for employees with a higher education working full time in a
    position demanding higher education and financed from the state budget
    (EE0311103F [3]). TALO represents employees working in the fields of
    education, culture, media, agriculture, sports, science, technology and
    healthcare. Of 80,000 public sector workers with a higher education who
    receive their wages from the state or local government budgets, 35,000 are
    members of TALO. Only a small share of TALO’s members work in the private
    sector.

    [1] http://www.talo.ee/
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/the-development-and-current-situation-of-trade-unions
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/talo-organises-one-day-strike

  • Article
    17 Prosinec 2003

    Under transitional arrangements agreed by the EU and new Member States in
    central and eastern Europe which will join in 1 May 2004, the existing Member
    States may limit movements of workers from the new Member States for a period
    of up to seven years after enlargement. On 2 December 2003, the Danish
    government secured support for a political agreement which will give workers
    from central and eastern Europe access to the Danish labour market from the
    first day of their EU membership - as will also be the case in countries such
    as the UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and Sweden. However, in the Danish case
    this permission is subject to a number of special conditions (DK0310101N
    [1]).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/transitional-arrangements-proposed-for-workers-from-central-and-eastern-europe

  • Article
    17 Prosinec 2003

    Since 1989, Bulgaria has faced the double challenge of economic and political
    transition and preparation for accession to the European Union (expected in
    2007). Since the 1990s, accession has become an over-riding priority,
    supported unconditionally by all political parties. In line with this
    priority, Bulgaria has been speeding up the pace of adopting the 'acquis
    communautaire' (the body of EU law which acceding countries must implement),
    including with regard to equality and non-discrimination.

  • Article
    16 Prosinec 2003

    In late 2003, four trade unions affiliated to the Confederation of Vocational
    Unions (Yrkesorganisasjonenes Sentralforbund, YS) have come a long way in
    preparing for a merger. If everything goes according to plan, the new union
    will be formally established in autumn 2004. The new union will have
    approximately 90,000 members, becoming YS’s largest affiliate and
    Norway’s fourth-largest trade union. Several member unions of the Norwegian
    Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO) are also
    considering possible mergers: in the transport and service sector, six unions
    are considering the creation of a single service sector union; while in
    manufacturing industry, the Graphical Workers' Union (Norsk Grafisk Forbund,
    NGF) is negotiating a possible merger with the Norwegian United Federation of
    Trade Unions (Fellesforbundet).

  • Article
    16 Prosinec 2003

    The current national agreement, Sustaining Progress [1] (IE0304201N [2] and
    IE0301209F [3]) contains an 'inability to pay' clause, allowing employers not
    to pay all or some of the pay increases due under the agreement in
    circumstances where this would result in serious loss of competitiveness and
    employment. If an employer wishes to claim inability to pay, the first step
    is at local level, where a company that claims to be in competitive/financial
    difficulty is obliged to open its books to employee representatives. If this
    does not convince the trade union(s), then the matter can be referred to
    normal Labour Relations Commission (LRC) conciliation, and should this fail
    to resolve the dispute, then the LRC can call in an agreed independent
    assessor(s). These independent assessors, chosen from a panel of 12, examine
    the financial background of employers claiming inability to pay, under the
    auspices of the LRC. More controversially and innovatively, the procedure
    allows for referral of such cases to the Labour Court for a binding decision
    on whether or not the /Sustaining Progress/ increases should be paid.

    [1] http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/upload/SustProgagri.pdf
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/social-partners-ratify-new-national-agreement
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/breakthrough-on-new-national-agreement