Recent figures from Statistics Norway (Statistisk Sentralbyrå, SSB) show a
significant decline in the labour force participation rate of people with
disabilities, or 'impaired functionality'. Only 42.5% of all people in this
group were in employment in the second quarter of 2003, while at the same
time 3.9% were unemployed, compared with 46.6% and 3.1% respectively in the
same quarter of 2002. The total labour force participation rate of people
with disabilities/impaired functionality was 46.4% in the second quarter of
2003 - a significant drop from the 49.5% recorded in the same quarter of
2002. The figure is much lower than that for the whole population, which has
a labour force participation rate of 79% in 2003. The unemployment rate, on
the other hand, is not higher among people with disabilities than in the
population at large.
Temporary agency workers can no longer be employed at lower wages than paid
to employees of the user company at the same workplace for the same work.
This is the implication of an arbitration award issued on 1 September 2003 in
a case involving the Union of Danish Electricians (Dansk El-Forbund) and
Tekniq, the employers' organisation for heating and plumbing engineering and
electrical installation, which found that temporary agency workers should
work under the same contractual terms as apply to user company employees who
perform the same work, including the same wages. The building workers'
section of the General Workers’ Union in Denmark (Specialarbejderforbundet
i Danmark, SiD) has described this award as a 'U-turn' in terms of the legal
status of temporary agency workers.
In recent years, 'atypical' work – and particularly 'semi-subordinate' work
(midway between dependent employment and self-employment) – has played a
key role in employment growth in Italy, accounting for more than 40% of new
jobs created. The most important of the non-dependent atypical forms of work
is 'employer-coordinated freelance' work. Unlike temporary work, this form of
employment relationship has continued to increase, at an average growth rate
of 12% per year, and now involves almost 2.4 million workers. This increase
has been matched by a substantial growth, in both quantitative and
qualitative terms, of collective bargaining covering such workers, which has
led to important agreements being reached not only at the company and
territorial level but also at the sectoral and national levels. This article
examines the situation in mid-2003.
A new Labour Code came into effect on 1 March 2003, following the
introduction of Law No. 53 of 2003 (the 'Labour Code law'). It aims to
replace Romania's previous industrial relations rules, which were dominated
by the assumptions of the former 'command economy' based on centralised
planning. The new Code – made up of 13 titles, 37 chapters, 17 sections and
298 articles – governs collective labour relations as a whole, involving
employees (defined as Romanian citizens working inside or outside the
country, and foreign citizens working for a Romanian employer in the country,
including refugees), employers (individuals or companies with legal
personality), trade unions and employers' organisations.
Two national collective agreements for workers in the Italian tourism sector
were signed in July 2003. The agreements' main provisions include an 11.5%
wage increase over four years, the introduction of a supplementary health
insurance scheme and the enhancement of decentralised bargaining.
A new national collective agreement for the Italian insurance sector was
signed in July 2003. As well as pay increases, the agreement contains a
number of innovatory provisions, including: the creation of a national
observatory on bullying, the establishment of a fund for the care of disabled
workers; and enhanced information and consultation, including on equal
In late June 2003, Sweden's main trade union and employers' confederations
agreed joint guidelines  for implementing the European framework agreement
on telework  signed in July 2002 (EU0207204F ) by the EU-level central
social partners - the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), the Council
of European Professional and Managerial Staff (EUROCADRES)/European
Confederation of Executives and Managerial Staff (CEC) liaison committee, the
Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE)/the
European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (UEAPME)
and the European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of
Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP). The EU-level telework
agreement was the first cross-industry agreement between the social partners
which was not intended to be implemented by an EU Directive, but by the
national member organisations of the signatory parties 'in accordance with
the procedures and practices specific to management and labour in the Member
The Irish government is soon to consider a proposal to increase the five-year
'range' during which civil servants can retire on a full pension, from the
current 60-65 years of age to 62-67. This is among several suggestions to
emerge from a working group which, for over two years, has been discussing
the implementation of a major report from the Commission on Public Service
Pensions, which was published in 2001. The Commission’s 2001 report had
found that the cost of public service pensions would double between 1997 to
2012, from EUR 807 million to EUR 1.7 billion, rising by a further EUR 1.27
billion by 2027.
On 31 August 2003, the delegates at the 20th national congress of the German
Metalworkers' Union (Industriegewerkschaft Metall, IG Metall) elected a new
leadership for a four-year term of office. The new chair of the union is the
previous vice-chair, Jürgen Peters, while the previous head of IG Metall's
Baden-Württemberg district organisation, Berthold Huber, was elected as
vice-chair. The percentages of votes obtained by both candidates, 66% and 67%
respectively, were the lowest ever obtained in an uncontested leadership
election in IG Metall's history.
The Confederation of British Industry (CBI), the Trades Union Congress (TUC)
and CEEP UK- the British affiliates of the European social partner
organisations, the Union of Industrial and Employers’ Confederations of
Europe (UNICE), the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the
European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises
of General Economic Interest (CEEP) - have agreed a document  giving
guidance on telework. Talks between the three organisations were prompted by
the July 2002 agreement on teleworking  between their European-level
counterparts (EU0207204F ), and were held under the auspices of the
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), which published the agreed guidance
in August 2003.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the textiles and clothing sector in the EU Member States.
This report presents Eurofound’s research on telework during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021. It explores changes in the incidence of telework, working conditions experienced by employees working from home and changes to regulations addressing issues related to this working arrangement. The findings reveal a rapid escalation of telework triggered by the pandemic: in 2021, 2 out of 10 European employees were teleworking – a figure that most likely would not have been reached before 2027 had the pandemic not occurred.
This paper provides an analytical summary of state of the art academic and policy literature on the impact of climate change and policies to manage transitions to a carbon neutral economy on employment, working conditions, social dialogue and living conditions. It maps the key empirical findings around the impact of climate change and the green transitions on jobs, sectors, regions and countries in Europe, identifying the opportunities and risks that climate change policies bring to European labour markets.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This report offers the most up to date insight on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the work and life of Europeans over the last two years. The main focus is on Eurofound’s e-survey Living, working and COVID-19 which was launched on 9 April 2020 just after the onset of the crisis. Through five rounds of the survey (two in 2020, two in 2021 and one in 2022), the range of questions changed to match the evolving situation and to understand the effects on the everyday lives of citizens and workers in the EU27.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the civil aviation sector in the EU Member States.
This report explores the association between skills use and skills strategies and establishment performance, and how other workplace practices, in terms of work organisation, human resources management and employee involvement, can impact on this. It looks at how skills shortages can be addressed, at least in part, by creating an environment in which employees are facilitated and motivated to make better use of the skills they already have. This further supports the business case for a more holistic approach to management.
This report explores the drivers of economic and social convergence in Europe, using a selected set of economic and social indicators to examine trends in the performance of individual Member States. It also investigates what role the Economic and Monetary Union plays in convergence, particularly in southern and eastern Member States. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on convergence is analysed and initial conclusions are drawn about the impact of EU recovery packages and their ability to prevent divergence.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the professional football sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the professional football sector in the EU Member States.