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  • Article
    9 Září 2003

    Recent figures from Statistics Norway (Statistisk Sentralbyrå, SSB) show a
    significant decline in the labour force participation rate of people with
    disabilities, or 'impaired functionality'. Only 42.5% of all people in this
    group were in employment in the second quarter of 2003, while at the same
    time 3.9% were unemployed, compared with 46.6% and 3.1% respectively in the
    same quarter of 2002. The total labour force participation rate of people
    with disabilities/impaired functionality was 46.4% in the second quarter of
    2003 - a significant drop from the 49.5% recorded in the same quarter of
    2002. The figure is much lower than that for the whole population, which has
    a labour force participation rate of 79% in 2003. The unemployment rate, on
    the other hand, is not higher among people with disabilities than in the
    population at large.

  • Report
    9 Září 2003

    This report demonstrates the form that the descriptive and analytical components of the monitoring programme on quality of life could take. If individual and national quality of life is to be improved in the European Union through evidence based social policy, this will require both descriptive and analytical monitoring programmes. This report begins the task of providing both a descriptive benchmark for the monitoring programme and an analytical understanding of the processes that shape these patterns.

  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    In late June 2003, Sweden's main trade union and employers' confederations
    agreed joint guidelines [1] for implementing the European framework agreement
    on telework [2] signed in July 2002 (EU0207204F [3]) by the EU-level central
    social partners - the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), the Council
    of European Professional and Managerial Staff (EUROCADRES)/European
    Confederation of Executives and Managerial Staff (CEC) liaison committee, the
    Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE)/the
    European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (UEAPME)
    and the European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of
    Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP). The EU-level telework
    agreement was the first cross-industry agreement between the social partners
    which was not intended to be implemented by an EU Directive, but by the
    national member organisations of the signatory parties 'in accordance with
    the procedures and practices specific to management and labour in the Member


  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    Temporary agency workers can no longer be employed at lower wages than paid
    to employees of the user company at the same workplace for the same work.
    This is the implication of an arbitration award issued on 1 September 2003 in
    a case involving the Union of Danish Electricians (Dansk El-Forbund) and
    Tekniq, the employers' organisation for heating and plumbing engineering and
    electrical installation, which found that temporary agency workers should
    work under the same contractual terms as apply to user company employees who
    perform the same work, including the same wages. The building workers'
    section of the General Workers’ Union in Denmark (Specialarbejderforbundet
    i Danmark, SiD) has described this award as a 'U-turn' in terms of the legal
    status of temporary agency workers.

  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    In recent years, 'atypical' work – and particularly 'semi-subordinate' work
    (midway between dependent employment and self-employment) – has played a
    key role in employment growth in Italy, accounting for more than 40% of new
    jobs created. The most important of the non-dependent atypical forms of work
    is 'employer-coordinated freelance' work. Unlike temporary work, this form of
    employment relationship has continued to increase, at an average growth rate
    of 12% per year, and now involves almost 2.4 million workers. This increase
    has been matched by a substantial growth, in both quantitative and
    qualitative terms, of collective bargaining covering such workers, which has
    led to important agreements being reached not only at the company and
    territorial level but also at the sectoral and national levels. This article
    examines the situation in mid-2003.

  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    A new Labour Code came into effect on 1 March 2003, following the
    introduction of Law No. 53 of 2003 (the 'Labour Code law'). It aims to
    replace Romania's previous industrial relations rules, which were dominated
    by the assumptions of the former 'command economy' based on centralised
    planning. The new Code – made up of 13 titles, 37 chapters, 17 sections and
    298 articles – governs collective labour relations as a whole, involving
    employees (defined as Romanian citizens working inside or outside the
    country, and foreign citizens working for a Romanian employer in the country,
    including refugees), employers (individuals or companies with legal
    personality), trade unions and employers' organisations.

  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    Two national collective agreements for workers in the Italian tourism sector
    were signed in July 2003. The agreements' main provisions include an 11.5%
    wage increase over four years, the introduction of a supplementary health
    insurance scheme and the enhancement of decentralised bargaining.

  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    A new national collective agreement for the Italian insurance sector was
    signed in July 2003. As well as pay increases, the agreement contains a
    number of innovatory provisions, including: the creation of a national
    observatory on bullying, the establishment of a fund for the care of disabled
    workers; and enhanced information and consultation, including on equal
    opportunities issues.

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    In August 2003, the Polish government named four coal mines which are to be
    closed in 2004, following an agreement reached with mineworkers' trade unions
    in 2002 on the closure of unprofitable mines. The announcement led to the
    unions calling strike action in the mines concerned, despite government
    assurances that new jobs or appropriate accompanying social measures will be
    arranged for all the miners to be made redundant.

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    On 22 July 2003, the Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
    Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) and the Chamber of Labour (Arbeiterkammer, AK)
    jointly presented a study on the working and living conditions of 'atypical'
    workers in Austria. The study (Atypisch beschäftigt - typisch für die
    Zukunft der Arbeit [1]) evaluates interviews conducted in 2002 with 528
    people who made use of special advisory services for 'atypical' workers
    offered by both ÖGB and AK. More precisely, the researchers’ focus group
    were self-employed people employed under either a 'free service contract'
    (freier Dienstvertrag) or a 'contract for work' (Werkvertrag) (TN0205101S
    [2]). According to Austrian labour law, both groups are classified as
    self-employed in the narrow sense, although they do not employ other people
    and often work for only one client. Actually, their working situation
    resembles to a great extent that of (dependent) employees. People working on
    a 'contract for work' basis (also referred to as the 'new self-employed', or
    neue Selbständige) are obliged to fulfil a certain, well-defined task,
    regardless of whether they do this themselves or subcontract to other people.
    For their part, 'free service contract' workers provide an (often fixed-term)
    ongoing service. Formally, they are not subject to the instructions of the
    client and are free to schedule their own working time. Working materials, in
    general, have to be made available to these workers by the client.



  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This publication series include the ERM reports, as well as blogs, articles and working papers on restructuring-related events in the EU27 and Norway.

  • European Working Conditions Telephone Survey 2021

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the European Working Conditions Telephone Survey (EWCTS) 2021, an extraordinary edition conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Developments in working life, industrial relations and working conditions in the EU

    This publication series gathers all overview reports on developments in working life, annual reviews in industrial relations and working conditions produced by Eurofound on the basis of national contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents (NEC). Since 1997, these reports have provided overviews of the latest developments in industrial relations and working conditions across the EU and Norway. The series may include recent ad hoc articles written by members of the NEC.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

Forthcoming publications