In May 2002, after over three months of dispute, an agreement on the closure
of a Lear Corporation cable plant at Cervera in Catalonia, Spain, was
concluded by the workers' committee and the company, following mediation by
the Catalan regional government. The 928 workers at the plant will received
enhanced compensation and be offered various redeployment possibilities.
European Union enlargement is approaching fast. Of 13 countries from central
and eastern Europe and the Mediterranean which have applied for membership,
negotiations have been proceeding with 12, and 10 new Member States may join
the EU from 2004. In this context, the European Industrial Relations
Observatory (EIRO) is now starting to expand its coverage of industrial
relations developments to the candidate countries.
In late April 2002, the Italian government approved new legislation which
seeks to promote the 'regularisation' of irregular work - ie employment which
is not declared for tax and social security purposes and does not observe the
pay and conditions laid down by sectoral collective agreements. The new law
provides for a three-year period of 'emergence' from the underground economy,
during which companies and workers involved in irregular work will benefit
from tax and social security incentives as they regularise their situation.
Nach einer stabilen Entwicklung im Jahr 2000 hielt das Wirtschaftswachstum in
den meisten EU-Mitgliedstaaten auch im ersten Halbjahr 2001 an. Gegen Mitte
des Jahres geriet die Wirtschaft in vielen Ländern jedoch ins Wanken, und
der beginnende Rückgang wurde zudem durch die Terroranschläge in den USA
vom 11. September verstärkt, die viele Sektoren wie die Zivilluftfahrt, die
Tourismusbranche und verwandte Industriezweige in die Krise stürzten. Somit
zeigen die jährlichen Wachstumszahlen bis zum dritten Quartal 2001 sowohl in
den 12 Ländern der 'Eurozone' als auch in den 15 Mitgliedstaaten ein
durchschnittliches BIP-Wachstum von 1,4 %, was im Vergleich zu den Zahlen bis
zum dritten Quartal 2000 – 3,4 % in der Eurozone und 3,3 % in den 15
Mitgliedstaaten – einen deutlichen Rückgang darstellt (siehe Abbildung 1).
In Spanien (2,8 %) und im Vereinigten Königreich (2,2 %) war die
Wachstumsrate bis zum dritten Quartal 2001 am höchsten, am niedrigsten lag
sie in Finnland (0,0 %) und Deutschland (0,4 %).
La croissance économique s'est poursuivie à un rythme assez soutenu dans la
plupart des États membres de l'UE au cours du premier semestre 2001, après
une performance vigoureuse en 2000. Dans de nombreux pays toutefois,
l'économie a commencé à faiblir vers le milieu de l'année et ce
fléchissement naissant a été aggravé par les attaques terroristes du 11
septembre contre les États-Unis, plongeant de nombreux secteurs (tels que
l'aviation civile, le tourisme et les industries connexes) dans la crise.
Ainsi, les chiffres de la croissance annuelle pour les trois premiers
trimestres 2001 indiquent un taux de croissance annuel du PIB de 1,4% en
moyenne aussi bien dans les 12 pays de la 'zone euro' que dans les 15 États
membres, ce qui représente une baisse significative par rapport aux chiffres
de la période correspondante en 2000: 3,4% (dans la zone euro) et 3,3% (dans
les 15 États membres) - voir la figure 1 ci-dessous. Pour les trois premiers
trimestres de 2001, la croissance la plus élevée a été enregistrée en
Espagne (2,8%) et au Royaume-Uni (2,2%), et la plus faible en Finlande (0,0%)
et en Allemagne (0,4%).
The SERVEMPLOI  project is a three-year European Union-funded project
which monitors the progress of women working in the finance  and retail
 sectors in eight EU Member States: Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland,
Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK. The project, which ran between December 1998
and December 2001, has now issued its reports on the two sectors. The project
aimed to answer the following questions:
Austria is well known for its high-developed and, in terms of political and
social stability, effective social partnership system, whereby distinct
'corporatist' structures have hitherto shaped socio-economic policy. However,
since the coalition government of the populist Freedom Party (Freiheitliche
Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) and the conservative People's Party
(Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) came to power in February 2000
(AT0002212F ), the traditional consensual atmosphere of public
policy-making has been greatly disrupted. In particular, organised labour has
been forced onto the defensive by the government's policy of limiting social
partnership (AT0109201F ). Thus, political tensions between the coalition
government and the trade unions have continually increased.
A government Order adopted in Portugal in March 2002 aims to encourage
permanent employment by means of financial subsidies for companies that
convert a fixed-term contract, on expiry, into an open-ended contract. The
new legislation is seen as necessary because fixed-term employment is
continuing to increase (currently affecting some 15% of employees),
especially among women.
According to data from the state Foreigners and Borders Department (Serviço
de Estrangeiros e Fronteiras, SEF), there are currently about 389,000 legal
immigrants from outside the EU in Portugal, representing about 3% of the
Portuguese population (PT0006199F ). There are three main types of
immigrant workers in Portugal:
As part of the research project on the social implications of EMU, the Foundation commissioned a literature review which would focus on the relationship between EMU and reforms in the public sector. The study provides an overview of the policies and structure of the public sector in 10 Member States. The investigation, whose main findings are presented in this leaflet, looks at the impact of EMU on changes in the scope of the public sector, on financial and budgetary frameworks, and on industrial relations in the public sector.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
Access to key social services, especially education and healthcare, as well as stable family life and decent housing are necessary for the well-being and development of children. Ensuring that all children have these resources is an EU priority; the European Commission is currently undertaking to recommend a Child Guarantee to address the situations of children in need. Service provision has been complicated by the COVID-19 outbreak, however, and the pandemic has put psychological and material strains on families.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.