In April 2002, the Dutch government resigned after the publication of
research into the events around the fall of the Bosnian enclave of
Srebrenica, which was under the protection of Dutch peacekeepers, in 1995.
Trade unions representing military personnel have called for the resignation
of the army leadership at the time and for a parliamentary inquiry, which has
now been launched.
In April 2002, following two months of tension, a series of strikes and
difficult negotiations, the Athens Daily Newspaper Journalists' Union (ESIEA)
and the Association of Athens Daily Newspaper Owners (EIIEA) concluded a new
collective agreement for journalists. The one-year agreement provides for pay
increases, a five-day normal working week and protection against collective
During March-April 2002, uniformed customs officers in France took various
forms of industrial action to support demands for an increase in their danger
bonus and enhanced pension conditions. It appears that proposals tabled by
the Minister of the Economy and Finance on 22 April satisfied the demands of
the officers' inter-union committee, and striking workers returned to work in
most regions, with the notable exception of Orly airport.
In summer 1999, Västmanland County Council (Landstinget i Västmanland) - an
area 200 kilometres northwest of Stockholm - announced a vacancy for a
midwife in one of its care centres. There were five applicants for the job,
all women, of whom one was pregnant. One of the other four applicants was
given the job, despite the fact that the pregnant woman had the best
qualifications for the position. The Ombudsman for Equal Opportunities
(Jämställdhetsombudsmannen, Jämo) took up the case, arguing that the
pregnant job applicant had been subject to sex discrimination, and should
have been given the job as she had the best qualifications. The case went to
the Labour Court (Arbetsdomstolen), which delivered its judgment, in favour
of the unsuccessful applicant, on 3 April 2002 (/Dom nr 45/02/).
Over March-April 2002, the public transport network of Lyons in France was
hit by a 22-day strike called by trade unions over wage demands. The dispute
was brought to an end by an agreement concluded on 11 April.
According to figures published in spring 2002, the total membership of the
professional workers' trade unions affiliated to the Swedish Confederation of
Professional Associations (Sveriges Akademikers Centralorganisation, SACO)
increased by 4.4% in 2001. This was the biggest annual increase in the
history of SACO, which was founded in 1947. SACO's total affiliated
membership stood at 514,000 in December 2001, up 21,943 on the December 2000
figure. Of SACO members, around 269,000 are men and 245,000 are women. SACO
has 26 affiliated unions, and 19 of them recorded an increase in membership
in 2001. The graduate economists' association had the highest increase, at
13%, closely followed by those for civil engineers and lawyers. 'Many workers
in the so-called new economy have realised that competent trade unions are
valuable in times of restructuring,' commented SACO's recently elected chair,
Anna Ekström as the membership figures were released.
This national report examines the main trends in temporary agency work and the problems and challenges it poses in France. It puts the spotlight on the working conditions of temporary agency workers, and the specific features of such work that might help explain these conditions.
In spring 2002, the Finnish national-level social partners issued a joint
statement on good working time practices. It states that flexible working
hours should be arranged in a way that meets the requirement of markets and
customers, while at the same time the individual needs of employees should
also be taken into consideration.
On 27 March 2002, John Monks, the general secretary of the Trades Union
Congress (TUC), said that he was considering becoming a candidate for the
post of general secretary of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)
when the present incumbent, Emilio Gabaglio, retires in 2003.
In late April 2002, it was reported that the European Commission has taken
the first steps towards initiating legal proceedings against the UK over its
alleged failure to comply fully with the requirements of the 1993 EU working
time Directive (93/104/EC) . Following a complaint by the British trade
union Amicus, the Commission has written to the UK government under Article
226 of the European Community (EC) Treaty seeking its observations on three
aspects of the UK's Working Time Regulations 1999 , which the union argued
do not correctly implement the Directive.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Access to key social services, especially education and healthcare, as well as stable family life and decent housing are necessary for the well-being and development of children. Ensuring that all children have these resources is an EU priority; the European Commission is currently undertaking to recommend a Child Guarantee to address the situations of children in need. Service provision has been complicated by the COVID-19 outbreak, however, and the pandemic has put psychological and material strains on families.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.