In April 2002, the Dutch government resigned after the publication of
research into the events around the fall of the Bosnian enclave of
Srebrenica, which was under the protection of Dutch peacekeepers, in 1995.
Trade unions representing military personnel have called for the resignation
of the army leadership at the time and for a parliamentary inquiry, which has
now been launched.
During March-April 2002, uniformed customs officers in France took various
forms of industrial action to support demands for an increase in their danger
bonus and enhanced pension conditions. It appears that proposals tabled by
the Minister of the Economy and Finance on 22 April satisfied the demands of
the officers' inter-union committee, and striking workers returned to work in
most regions, with the notable exception of Orly airport.
Over March-April 2002, the public transport network of Lyons in France was
hit by a 22-day strike called by trade unions over wage demands. The dispute
was brought to an end by an agreement concluded on 11 April.
In summer 1999, Västmanland County Council (Landstinget i Västmanland) - an
area 200 kilometres northwest of Stockholm - announced a vacancy for a
midwife in one of its care centres. There were five applicants for the job,
all women, of whom one was pregnant. One of the other four applicants was
given the job, despite the fact that the pregnant woman had the best
qualifications for the position. The Ombudsman for Equal Opportunities
(Jämställdhetsombudsmannen, Jämo) took up the case, arguing that the
pregnant job applicant had been subject to sex discrimination, and should
have been given the job as she had the best qualifications. The case went to
the Labour Court (Arbetsdomstolen), which delivered its judgment, in favour
of the unsuccessful applicant, on 3 April 2002 (/Dom nr 45/02/).
According to figures published in spring 2002, the total membership of the
professional workers' trade unions affiliated to the Swedish Confederation of
Professional Associations (Sveriges Akademikers Centralorganisation, SACO)
increased by 4.4% in 2001. This was the biggest annual increase in the
history of SACO, which was founded in 1947. SACO's total affiliated
membership stood at 514,000 in December 2001, up 21,943 on the December 2000
figure. Of SACO members, around 269,000 are men and 245,000 are women. SACO
has 26 affiliated unions, and 19 of them recorded an increase in membership
in 2001. The graduate economists' association had the highest increase, at
13%, closely followed by those for civil engineers and lawyers. 'Many workers
in the so-called new economy have realised that competent trade unions are
valuable in times of restructuring,' commented SACO's recently elected chair,
Anna Ekström as the membership figures were released.
This national report examines the main trends in temporary agency work and the problems and challenges it poses in France. It puts the spotlight on the working conditions of temporary agency workers, and the specific features of such work that might help explain these conditions.
In spring 2002, the Finnish national-level social partners issued a joint
statement on good working time practices. It states that flexible working
hours should be arranged in a way that meets the requirement of markets and
customers, while at the same time the individual needs of employees should
also be taken into consideration.
On 27 March 2002, John Monks, the general secretary of the Trades Union
Congress (TUC), said that he was considering becoming a candidate for the
post of general secretary of the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC)
when the present incumbent, Emilio Gabaglio, retires in 2003.
In late April 2002, it was reported that the European Commission has taken
the first steps towards initiating legal proceedings against the UK over its
alleged failure to comply fully with the requirements of the 1993 EU working
time Directive (93/104/EC) . Following a complaint by the British trade
union Amicus, the Commission has written to the UK government under Article
226 of the European Community (EC) Treaty seeking its observations on three
aspects of the UK's Working Time Regulations 1999 , which the union argued
do not correctly implement the Directive.
On 18 April 2002, a joint Council of Ministers/European Parliament (EP)
conciliation committee issued an agreed joint text of a draft Directive
updating the 1976 Directive (76/207/EEC) on equal treatment for men and women
as regards access to employment, vocational training and promotion, and
working conditions . This proposal was first issued by the European
Commission on 7 June 2000 (EU0006255F ), with the aim of modernising and
updating the 1976 Directive and including the issue of sexual harassment in
the text. The proposal has since been making its way through the EU
decision-making machinery, subject to the co-decision procedure.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the overlaps between different parts of the public sector, especially with regard to social services. Firstly, the overlaps in terms of employment structures are analysed; secondly, the overlaps of all national sector-related organisations are assessed; and thirdly, the overlaps of the European social partner organisation are considered. The conclusions of this report should help decision-making regarding which ESSDC social services activities fit best in.
The European Jobs Monitor biannual report comprises two sections: one providing a jobs-based analysis of labour market developments, while the other has a thematic focus on shifts in the employment structure from both a gender and an age perspective. The age-based analysis examines how the age profile of employment has evolved since the crisis and explores whether employment continues to be more resilient in jobs with an older age profile. The gender analysis reassesses the findings of the jobs approach using more gender-disaggregated job-ranking data, based on both wage and education.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (groundcrew and air traffic control crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The objective of this study is to examine the quality and effectiveness of the tripartite social dialogue practices involving national social partners aimed at addressing relevant reforms and particularly those adocpted as CSRs in the context of the European Semester. It also analyses the structural, political or operational reasons limiting or shaping the effective involvement of the social partners in these processes.