Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
Four years of economic growth and declining unemployment have only slightly
reduced poverty and social exclusion in France. This is the conclusion of an
official report, issued in March 2002, that also highlights the fact that
these phenomena have affected specific social groups and areas of the country
more than others.
Finland's national programme for older workers - in which the social partners
are central players - ended in March 2002 with a seminar to discuss its
results. Research indicates that the labour market position of people aged
over 45 has been improved over the five years of the programme: their
employment rate has increased and the average retirement age has been raised
by a few years. Finland is considered as providing an example to the rest of
the EU in terms of policies to deal with the ageing workforce.
In March 2002, Finland's Government Institute for Economic Research published
a research study on the distribution of national income between labour and
capital, commissioned by the tripartite incomes policy information
commission. According to the findings, the share of wages in the national
income has decreased drastically since the early 1990s. In response, the SAK
trade union confederation has warned of a new battle over the distribution of
A new Directive extending some of the protection of the 1993 EU Directive
(93/104/EC) concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time
 to mobile workers in the road transport sector gained the approval of the
Council of Ministers and the European Parliament (EP) in February 2002. The
text of Directive 2002/15/EC on the organisation of the working time of
persons performing mobile road transport activities  was published in the
EU /Official Journal/ on 23 March 2002 and Member States have three years in
which to transpose its provisions into national legislation.
After two months of bargaining, Greece's new National General Collective
Agreement for the private sector was signed in April 2002. The agreement will
be in force for the two-year period, 2002-3. It provides for pay increases of
5.4% in 2002 and 3.9% in 2003, along with a variety of new provisions on
employment conditions and social issues. The topic of working time reduction
has been referred to a special committee.
After 14 months of negotiations, the European-level intersectoral social
partners concluded on 28 February 2002 a joint text on training and
competence development. The 'Framework of actions for the lifelong
development of competencies and qualifications  ' was presented to the
European Council which was held in Barcelona on 15–16 March 2002
(EU0203205F ). The social partners organisations involved were: the
European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), along with representatives of
liaison committee for managerial and professional staff, which brings
together the ETUC-affiliated Council of European Professional and Managerial
Staff (EUROCADRES) and the independent European Confederation of Executives
and Managerial Staff (CEC); the Union of Industrial and Employers'
Confederations of Europe (UNICE), in cooperation with the European
Association of Craft and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (UEAPME); and the
European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises
of General Economic Interest (CEEP).
Under the terms of the Austrian Constitution, the country has three levels of
government: the federal (ie central) state; the provinces (Länder); and the
local state (cities and municipalities). The local state provides two
categories of local public services: governmental services in the narrow
sense; and such consumer-oriented services as transport, power and rubbish
collection, which are often organised in the form of businesses owned by the
respective city or municipality. Since Austrian cities and municipalities
have so far largely refrained from privatising such consumer-oriented
services, this feature examining industrial relations in local public
services considers them in the broad sense (ie covering both categories of
Between 1 March and 31 May 2002, works council election  s are taking
place in German establishments under the terms of new Works Constitution Act
(Betriebsverfassungsgesetz, BetrVG) passed in 2001 (DE0107234F ). The
BetrVG, which had previously remained almost unchanged for 30 years,
determines the legal framework for co-determination  at the establishment
level in the private sector.
The 2002 collective bargaining round (NO0202104F ) commenced on 11 March
with industry-level negotiations in the engineering sector between the
Federation of Norwegian Manufacturing Industries (Teknologibedriftenes
Landsforening, TBL) and the Norwegian United Federation of Trade Unions
(Fellesforbundet). The most important issues on the bargaining agenda were
wages and the introduction of an agreement-based occupational pension scheme.
Following almost a month of negotiations and mediation, a proposal for a new
collective agreement was put forward on 9 April.
An agreement between the minority Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokratiska
Arbetarepartiet, SAP) government and the Left Party (Vänsterpartiet) and
Green Party (Miljöpartiet de Gröna), setting out the framework for a new
system of 'individual learning accounts', was announced on 12 March 2002. The
agreement is based largely on proposals on an individual skill development
savings system made in December 2000 (SE0101178F ) by a
government-appointed commissioner (/SOU 2000:19/). On 15 April 2002, the
government presented a bill on the issue, containing provisions very similar
to those in the agreement between the three parties.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Technological developments, new forms of employment and new ways of organising work are transforming the world of work, with knock-on effects on working conditions. These changes are affecting the different economic sectors and occupations in different ways. This study uses data from the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey to illustrate the changes in working conditions that different sectors and occupations are experiencing and to compare job quality within them.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the human health sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of Eurofound’s studies on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the field of industrial relations in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the local and regional administration sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Restructuring Monitor (ERM) report for 2020 looks at the specificities of large-scale transnational restructurings of companies operating in different EU Member States. It examines the factors affecting how companies make decisions regarding their international distribution of employment and how any conflicts arising are addressed or resolved. The research is based on over 1,000 large transnational restructurings recorded in the ERM events database.
The long-term care (LTC) sector employs an increasing share of workers in the EU, with increasing shortages. The LTC workforce is mainly female and a relatively large and increasing proportion is 50 or older. Migrants are often concentrated in certain LTC jobs. This report maps the working conditions, the nature of employment and the role of collective bargaining in the sector. It also discusses policies to make the sector more attractive, combat undeclared work and to improve the situation of a particular vulnerable group of LTC workers: live-in carers.
Member States are autonomous when it comes to the design of their social protection systems. However, EU recommendations and treaties oblige them to address the convergence of these systems and policies with other Member States. At the same time, convergence may also come about as a result of economic integration and endeavours to reduce social imbalances. This report looks at the main long-term trends in social protection expenditure and performance across the Member States to assess the extent to which they are converging in this policy area.
Social, economic and technological changes are giving rise to new forms of employment. These differ from 'traditional' work either in the relationship between employer and employee or in the unconventional work patterns and places of work that characterise them. While these new forms of employment can contribute to more inclusive labour markets, legalise undeclared work and offer preferential working conditions, some also raise concerns about, for example, job quality and representation. This report updates Eurofound's 2015 mapping of emerging trends.
Recent technological developments as well as management tools and practices allow for the collection of more data, and new kinds of data, about workers. This enables the quantification of activities that may not previously have been measured or tracked in a given workplace and their (automatic) processing. As a consequence, the frontiers between workplace monitoring, quality control and worker surveillance may be blurring.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This flagship report consolidates findings in the industrial relations field from research conducted by Eurofound over the course of its multiannual work programme for 2017–2020. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of European social dialogue, including the linkages with national social dialogue and the capacity constraints of the actors. A national comparative analysis draws on projects that have mapped the key features of national industrial relations systems.