Debate about health and safety at work in France has been intensified over
2001-2 by the publication of several highly critical reports on the
prevention of work-related accidents and occupational illnesses, various
legislative developments and a landmark court ruling on employers'
responsibility for asbestos protection. These developments have combined to
mount a challenge to the existing system of prevention and raised the
prospect of a reform of the entire raft of compensatory measures for
work-related accidents and occupational illnesses.
Four years of economic growth and declining unemployment have only slightly
reduced poverty and social exclusion in France. This is the conclusion of an
official report, issued in March 2002, that also highlights the fact that
these phenomena have affected specific social groups and areas of the country
more than others.
Finland's national programme for older workers - in which the social partners
are central players - ended in March 2002 with a seminar to discuss its
results. Research indicates that the labour market position of people aged
over 45 has been improved over the five years of the programme: their
employment rate has increased and the average retirement age has been raised
by a few years. Finland is considered as providing an example to the rest of
the EU in terms of policies to deal with the ageing workforce.
A new Directive extending some of the protection of the 1993 EU Directive
(93/104/EC) concerning certain aspects of the organisation of working time
 to mobile workers in the road transport sector gained the approval of the
Council of Ministers and the European Parliament (EP) in February 2002. The
text of Directive 2002/15/EC on the organisation of the working time of
persons performing mobile road transport activities  was published in the
EU /Official Journal/ on 23 March 2002 and Member States have three years in
which to transpose its provisions into national legislation.
After two months of bargaining, Greece's new National General Collective
Agreement for the private sector was signed in April 2002. The agreement will
be in force for the two-year period, 2002-3. It provides for pay increases of
5.4% in 2002 and 3.9% in 2003, along with a variety of new provisions on
employment conditions and social issues. The topic of working time reduction
has been referred to a special committee.
After 14 months of negotiations, the European-level intersectoral social
partners concluded on 28 February 2002 a joint text on training and
competence development. The 'Framework of actions for the lifelong
development of competencies and qualifications  ' was presented to the
European Council which was held in Barcelona on 15–16 March 2002
(EU0203205F ). The social partners organisations involved were: the
European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), along with representatives of
liaison committee for managerial and professional staff, which brings
together the ETUC-affiliated Council of European Professional and Managerial
Staff (EUROCADRES) and the independent European Confederation of Executives
and Managerial Staff (CEC); the Union of Industrial and Employers'
Confederations of Europe (UNICE), in cooperation with the European
Association of Craft and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (UEAPME); and the
European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises
of General Economic Interest (CEEP).
Under the terms of the Austrian Constitution, the country has three levels of
government: the federal (ie central) state; the provinces (Länder); and the
local state (cities and municipalities). The local state provides two
categories of local public services: governmental services in the narrow
sense; and such consumer-oriented services as transport, power and rubbish
collection, which are often organised in the form of businesses owned by the
respective city or municipality. Since Austrian cities and municipalities
have so far largely refrained from privatising such consumer-oriented
services, this feature examining industrial relations in local public
services considers them in the broad sense (ie covering both categories of
Between 1 March and 31 May 2002, works council election  s are taking
place in German establishments under the terms of new Works Constitution Act
(Betriebsverfassungsgesetz, BetrVG) passed in 2001 (DE0107234F ). The
BetrVG, which had previously remained almost unchanged for 30 years,
determines the legal framework for co-determination  at the establishment
level in the private sector.
The 2002 collective bargaining round (NO0202104F ) commenced on 11 March
with industry-level negotiations in the engineering sector between the
Federation of Norwegian Manufacturing Industries (Teknologibedriftenes
Landsforening, TBL) and the Norwegian United Federation of Trade Unions
(Fellesforbundet). The most important issues on the bargaining agenda were
wages and the introduction of an agreement-based occupational pension scheme.
Following almost a month of negotiations and mediation, a proposal for a new
collective agreement was put forward on 9 April.
An agreement between the minority Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokratiska
Arbetarepartiet, SAP) government and the Left Party (Vänsterpartiet) and
Green Party (Miljöpartiet de Gröna), setting out the framework for a new
system of 'individual learning accounts', was announced on 12 March 2002. The
agreement is based largely on proposals on an individual skill development
savings system made in December 2000 (SE0101178F ) by a
government-appointed commissioner (/SOU 2000:19/). On 15 April 2002, the
government presented a bill on the issue, containing provisions very similar
to those in the agreement between the three parties.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
Access to key social services, especially education and healthcare, as well as stable family life and decent housing are necessary for the well-being and development of children. Ensuring that all children have these resources is an EU priority; the European Commission is currently undertaking to recommend a Child Guarantee to address the situations of children in need. Service provision has been complicated by the COVID-19 outbreak, however, and the pandemic has put psychological and material strains on families.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.