Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
On 27 January 2002, after a shorter than usual period of negotiations
(DK0111128F ), the Minister of Finance and the joint trade union
bargaining body, the Danish Central Federation of State Employees'
Organisations (Centralorganisationernes Fællesudvalg, CFU), concluded
bargaining over a new three-year collective agreement for some 175,000
employees - both civil servants and other employees - in the central
government sector. There was great satisfaction on both sides of the
bargaining table with the result, which should guarantee an increase in real
wages and the implementation of a number of other measures over a longer
This national report examines the main trends in temporary agency work and the problems and challenges it poses in Austria. It puts the spotlight on the working conditions of temporary agency workers, and the specific features of such work that might help explain these conditions.
In March 2002, Susanne Riess-Passer, the Vice-Chancellor and chair of the
populist Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ), raised the
contentious issue of what is known in Austria as 'Pragmatisierung'- ie system
of permanent tenure for the career public servants, which provides absolute
protection against dismissal (see below). In line with prevailing public
opinion, the coalition government of the FPÖ and the conservative People's
Party (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) intends to reform the relevant
public service regulations to restrict this right of absolute protection
against dismissal to a certain narrowly defined group of public employees.
On 21 March 2002, the German-based construction company Philipp Holzmann AG
filed for bankruptcy protection in court. The collapse of Germany's
second-largest construction company came after several leading banks, among
others Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Commerzbank and HypoVereinsbank, failed
to reach an agreement on a feasible rescue plan and on providing the company
with new credit. Holzmann, which employs about 11,000 workers in Germany and
another 12,000 employees in its international subsidiaries, lost EUR 237
million in 2001 alone, which was much more than the EUR 199 million loss
which was expected as part of the company's long-term consolidation plan.
With the recent turn of events, it seems that more than 100 years of company
history have come to an end. This is not the first time, however, that
Holzmann has been threatened by bankruptcy.
The European Commission issued on 20 March 2002 a proposal for a European
Parliament and Council Directive on working conditions for temporary agency
workers . This is the third subject to be regulated within the framework
of the Commission's September 1995 social partner consultation on the issue
of 'atypical' work. This process has yielded two agreements negotiated
between the social partners at EU level – the European Trade Union
Confederation (ETUC), the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations
of Europe (UNICE) and the European Centre of Enterprises with Public
Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP). The
first was an accord on the regulation of part-time work, reached in June 1997
(EU9706131F ). This agreement forms the basis of EU Directive (97/81EC) on
part-time work , which was adopted on 15 December 1997. The second was an
accord on fixed-term work, reached on 14 January 1999 (EU9901147F ). This
agreement forms the basis of EU Directive (1999/70/EC) on fixed-term work
, which was adopted on 28 June 1999.
In 2002, women remain under-represented in leadership positions in Belgian
trade unions, and among members of employee representative bodies. The
reasons most frequently advanced for this state of affairs are family
responsibilities and social constraints. Female trade unionists are
increasingly demanding better representation, particularly in decision-making
roles, and the main unions are now seeking to change their attitudes and
increase awareness among women workers..
On 19 March 2002, the Deputy Prime Minister (Tánaiste) and Minister for
Enterprise, Trade and Employment, Mary Harney, launched a report from the
Irish Business and Employers Confederation (IBEC), entitled /Women in
management in Irish business/ and compiled by Anne Coughlan of IBEC in 2001.
The report: examines recent changes in the pattern of women's employment;
outlines the results of an IBEC survey on women in management; explores some
of the structural and attitudinal barriers to women's advancement that have
created a 'glass ceiling'; and sets out some practical measures that
employers can take to bridge the 'gender gap'.
The widely publicised 1999 'MacPherson report' following the police
investigation into the murder of black teenager Stephen Lawrence, highlighted
institutional racism as a major problem in British society. Three years on,
this article reviews how the trade union movement has responded to calls for
the social partners to tackle institutional racism in employment.
In February 2002, the European Parliament and Council of Ministers formally
adopted the EU Directive on national information and consultation rules.
After the remaining formalities, the final, official text of Directive
(2002/14/EC) establishing a general framework for informing and consulting
employees in the European Community  was published in the /Official
Journal of the European Communities/ (L80) on 23 March 2002. EU Member States
now have until 23 March 2005 to comply with its requirements. Under the
Directive, all undertakings with at least 50 employees (or establishments
with at least 20 employees) must inform and consult employee representatives
about business developments, employment trends and changes in work
The present government, consisting of the social democratic Labour Party
(Partij van de Arbeid, PvdA), the liberal Party for Freedom and Democracy
(Vereniging voor Vrijheid en Democratie, VVD) and the social
liberalDemocraten 66 (D66), was in 2001 in its last full year in office.
General elections will be held in May 2002.
This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This policy brief investigates the evolution of female labour market participation in the last decade and calculates the monetary cost of the persisting gender employment gap to Europe in that period. The analysis also highlights the disproportionate effects that the current COVID-19 crisis is having on working women and how this threatens decades of gains achieved in gender equality.
The long-term care (LTC) sector employs an increasing share of workers in the EU, with increasing shortages. The LTC workforce is mainly female and a relatively large and increasing proportion is 50 or older. Migrants are often concentrated in certain LTC jobs. This report maps the working conditions, the nature of employment and the role of collective bargaining in the sector. It also discusses policies to make the sector more attractive, combat undeclared work and to improve the situation of a particular vulnerable group of LTC workers: live-in carers.
Member States are autonomous when it comes to the design of their social protection systems. However, EU recommendations and treaties oblige them to address the convergence of these systems and policies with other Member States. At the same time, convergence may also come about as a result of economic integration and endeavours to reduce social imbalances. This report looks at the main long-term trends in social protection expenditure and performance across the Member States to assess the extent to which they are converging in this policy area.
Social, economic and technological changes are giving rise to new forms of employment. These differ from 'traditional' work either in the relationship between employer and employee or in the unconventional work patterns and places of work that characterise them. While these new forms of employment can contribute to more inclusive labour markets, legalise undeclared work and offer preferential working conditions, some also raise concerns about, for example, job quality and representation. This report updates Eurofound's 2015 mapping of emerging trends.
New digital technologies have expanded the possibilities of employee monitoring and surveillance, both in and outside the workplace. In the context of the increasing digitalisation of work, there are many issues related to employee monitoring that warrant the attention of policymakers. There are the often-cited privacy and ethical concerns but also important implications for worker–employer relations, as digitally enabled monitoring and surveillance inevitably shift power dynamics in the workplace.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the local and regional administration sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
This flagship report consolidates findings in the industrial relations field from research conducted by Eurofound over the course of its multiannual work programme for 2017–2020. It considers the strengths and weaknesses of European social dialogue, including the linkages with national social dialogue and the capacity constraints of the actors. A national comparative analysis draws on projects that have mapped the key features of national industrial relations systems.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.