Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
On 27 January 2002, after a shorter than usual period of negotiations
(DK0111128F ), the Minister of Finance and the joint trade union
bargaining body, the Danish Central Federation of State Employees'
Organisations (Centralorganisationernes Fællesudvalg, CFU), concluded
bargaining over a new three-year collective agreement for some 175,000
employees - both civil servants and other employees - in the central
government sector. There was great satisfaction on both sides of the
bargaining table with the result, which should guarantee an increase in real
wages and the implementation of a number of other measures over a longer
This national report examines the main trends in temporary agency work and the problems and challenges it poses in Austria. It puts the spotlight on the working conditions of temporary agency workers, and the specific features of such work that might help explain these conditions.
In March 2002, Susanne Riess-Passer, the Vice-Chancellor and chair of the
populist Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ), raised the
contentious issue of what is known in Austria as 'Pragmatisierung'- ie system
of permanent tenure for the career public servants, which provides absolute
protection against dismissal (see below). In line with prevailing public
opinion, the coalition government of the FPÖ and the conservative People's
Party (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) intends to reform the relevant
public service regulations to restrict this right of absolute protection
against dismissal to a certain narrowly defined group of public employees.
On 21 March 2002, the German-based construction company Philipp Holzmann AG
filed for bankruptcy protection in court. The collapse of Germany's
second-largest construction company came after several leading banks, among
others Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Commerzbank and HypoVereinsbank, failed
to reach an agreement on a feasible rescue plan and on providing the company
with new credit. Holzmann, which employs about 11,000 workers in Germany and
another 12,000 employees in its international subsidiaries, lost EUR 237
million in 2001 alone, which was much more than the EUR 199 million loss
which was expected as part of the company's long-term consolidation plan.
With the recent turn of events, it seems that more than 100 years of company
history have come to an end. This is not the first time, however, that
Holzmann has been threatened by bankruptcy.
The European Commission issued on 20 March 2002 a proposal for a European
Parliament and Council Directive on working conditions for temporary agency
workers . This is the third subject to be regulated within the framework
of the Commission's September 1995 social partner consultation on the issue
of 'atypical' work. This process has yielded two agreements negotiated
between the social partners at EU level – the European Trade Union
Confederation (ETUC), the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations
of Europe (UNICE) and the European Centre of Enterprises with Public
Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP). The
first was an accord on the regulation of part-time work, reached in June 1997
(EU9706131F ). This agreement forms the basis of EU Directive (97/81EC) on
part-time work , which was adopted on 15 December 1997. The second was an
accord on fixed-term work, reached on 14 January 1999 (EU9901147F ). This
agreement forms the basis of EU Directive (1999/70/EC) on fixed-term work
, which was adopted on 28 June 1999.
In 2002, women remain under-represented in leadership positions in Belgian
trade unions, and among members of employee representative bodies. The
reasons most frequently advanced for this state of affairs are family
responsibilities and social constraints. Female trade unionists are
increasingly demanding better representation, particularly in decision-making
roles, and the main unions are now seeking to change their attitudes and
increase awareness among women workers..
On 19 March 2002, the Deputy Prime Minister (Tánaiste) and Minister for
Enterprise, Trade and Employment, Mary Harney, launched a report from the
Irish Business and Employers Confederation (IBEC), entitled /Women in
management in Irish business/ and compiled by Anne Coughlan of IBEC in 2001.
The report: examines recent changes in the pattern of women's employment;
outlines the results of an IBEC survey on women in management; explores some
of the structural and attitudinal barriers to women's advancement that have
created a 'glass ceiling'; and sets out some practical measures that
employers can take to bridge the 'gender gap'.
The widely publicised 1999 'MacPherson report' following the police
investigation into the murder of black teenager Stephen Lawrence, highlighted
institutional racism as a major problem in British society. Three years on,
this article reviews how the trade union movement has responded to calls for
the social partners to tackle institutional racism in employment.
In February 2002, the European Parliament and Council of Ministers formally
adopted the EU Directive on national information and consultation rules.
After the remaining formalities, the final, official text of Directive
(2002/14/EC) establishing a general framework for informing and consulting
employees in the European Community  was published in the /Official
Journal of the European Communities/ (L80) on 23 March 2002. EU Member States
now have until 23 March 2005 to comply with its requirements. Under the
Directive, all undertakings with at least 50 employees (or establishments
with at least 20 employees) must inform and consult employee representatives
about business developments, employment trends and changes in work
The present government, consisting of the social democratic Labour Party
(Partij van de Arbeid, PvdA), the liberal Party for Freedom and Democracy
(Vereniging voor Vrijheid en Democratie, VVD) and the social
liberalDemocraten 66 (D66), was in 2001 in its last full year in office.
General elections will be held in May 2002.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the overlaps between different parts of the public sector, especially with regard to social services. Firstly, the overlaps in terms of employment structures are analysed; secondly, the overlaps of all national sector-related organisations are assessed; and thirdly, the overlaps of the European social partner organisation are considered. The conclusions of this report should help decision-making regarding which ESSDC social services activities fit best in.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
While unemployment is still a challenge in Europe, some countries, sectors and occupations are experiencing labour shortages. This report explores various approaches to identifying labour shortages and maps national policy debates around the issue. It documents public and social partner interventions to tackle labour shortages, such as measures fostering geographic or occupational mobility, addressing skills shortages and underinvestment in skills, improving working and employment conditions, and better matching procedures.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.