Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, r...Read more
Eurofound publishes its work in a range of publication formats to match audience needs and the nature of the output. These include flagship reports on a particular area of activity, research reports summarising the findings of a research project and policy briefs presenting policy pointers from research projects or facts and figures relevant to policy debates. Also included are blog articles, regular articles on working life in Europe, presentations, working papers providing background material to ongoing or already concluded research, and reports arising from ad hoc requests by policymakers. Other corporate publications include annual reports, brochures and promotional publications. Web databases and online resources such as data visualisation applications are available in Data and resources.
In late March 2002, two telecommunications companies, the Finnish Sonera and
Swedish Telia, announced their intention to merge. The merger would create
the largest telecommunications operator in the Nordic countries and a
significant operator on the European scale. According to the companies, the
merger will not result in job losses at this stage. Trade unions state that
they are satisfied with the plan and believe that jobs will be secure.
This national report examines the main trends in temporary agency work and the problems and challenges it poses in Austria. It puts the spotlight on the working conditions of temporary agency workers, and the specific features of such work that might help explain these conditions.
In March 2002, Susanne Riess-Passer, the Vice-Chancellor and chair of the
populist Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ), raised the
contentious issue of what is known in Austria as 'Pragmatisierung'- ie system
of permanent tenure for the career public servants, which provides absolute
protection against dismissal (see below). In line with prevailing public
opinion, the coalition government of the FPÖ and the conservative People's
Party (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) intends to reform the relevant
public service regulations to restrict this right of absolute protection
against dismissal to a certain narrowly defined group of public employees.
On 21 March 2002, the German-based construction company Philipp Holzmann AG
filed for bankruptcy protection in court. The collapse of Germany's
second-largest construction company came after several leading banks, among
others Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Commerzbank and HypoVereinsbank, failed
to reach an agreement on a feasible rescue plan and on providing the company
with new credit. Holzmann, which employs about 11,000 workers in Germany and
another 12,000 employees in its international subsidiaries, lost EUR 237
million in 2001 alone, which was much more than the EUR 199 million loss
which was expected as part of the company's long-term consolidation plan.
With the recent turn of events, it seems that more than 100 years of company
history have come to an end. This is not the first time, however, that
Holzmann has been threatened by bankruptcy.
The European Commission issued on 20 March 2002 a proposal for a European
Parliament and Council Directive on working conditions for temporary agency
workers . This is the third subject to be regulated within the framework
of the Commission's September 1995 social partner consultation on the issue
of 'atypical' work. This process has yielded two agreements negotiated
between the social partners at EU level – the European Trade Union
Confederation (ETUC), the Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations
of Europe (UNICE) and the European Centre of Enterprises with Public
Participation and of Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP). The
first was an accord on the regulation of part-time work, reached in June 1997
(EU9706131F ). This agreement forms the basis of EU Directive (97/81EC) on
part-time work , which was adopted on 15 December 1997. The second was an
accord on fixed-term work, reached on 14 January 1999 (EU9901147F ). This
agreement forms the basis of EU Directive (1999/70/EC) on fixed-term work
, which was adopted on 28 June 1999.
In 2002, women remain under-represented in leadership positions in Belgian
trade unions, and among members of employee representative bodies. The
reasons most frequently advanced for this state of affairs are family
responsibilities and social constraints. Female trade unionists are
increasingly demanding better representation, particularly in decision-making
roles, and the main unions are now seeking to change their attitudes and
increase awareness among women workers..
In February 2002, the European Parliament and Council of Ministers formally
adopted the EU Directive on national information and consultation rules.
After the remaining formalities, the final, official text of Directive
(2002/14/EC) establishing a general framework for informing and consulting
employees in the European Community  was published in the /Official
Journal of the European Communities/ (L80) on 23 March 2002. EU Member States
now have until 23 March 2005 to comply with its requirements. Under the
Directive, all undertakings with at least 50 employees (or establishments
with at least 20 employees) must inform and consult employee representatives
about business developments, employment trends and changes in work
On 19 March 2002, the Deputy Prime Minister (Tánaiste) and Minister for
Enterprise, Trade and Employment, Mary Harney, launched a report from the
Irish Business and Employers Confederation (IBEC), entitled /Women in
management in Irish business/ and compiled by Anne Coughlan of IBEC in 2001.
The report: examines recent changes in the pattern of women's employment;
outlines the results of an IBEC survey on women in management; explores some
of the structural and attitudinal barriers to women's advancement that have
created a 'glass ceiling'; and sets out some practical measures that
employers can take to bridge the 'gender gap'.
The widely publicised 1999 'MacPherson report' following the police
investigation into the murder of black teenager Stephen Lawrence, highlighted
institutional racism as a major problem in British society. Three years on,
this article reviews how the trade union movement has responded to calls for
the social partners to tackle institutional racism in employment.
At federal level, a 'rainbow' coalition has been in power since June 1999,
made up of six parties: the Flemish Liberals and Democrats (Vlaamse Liberalen
en Democraten,VLD); the Liberal Reform Party/Democratic Front of
Francophones/Movement of Citizens for the Change (Parti Réformateur
Libéral-Front Démocratique des Francophones-Mouvement du Citoyen pour le
Changement (PRL-FDF-MCC); the (French-speaking) Socialist Party (Parti
Socialiste (PS); the (Flemish-speaking) Progressive Social Alternative
(sociaal progressief alternatief, SP.A); Ecolo (French-speaking
environmentalists); and Agalev (Flemish environmentalists). The government's
term of office runs until mid-2003 and no elections were held in 2001.
However, a number of political parties changed their name, as follows:
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (groundcrew and air traffic control crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The objective of this study is to examine the quality and effectiveness of the tripartite social dialogue practices involving national social partners aimed at addressing relevant reforms and particularly those adocpted as CSRs in the context of the European Semester. It also analyses the structural, political or operational reasons limiting or shaping the effective involvement of the social partners in these processes.