During the course of 2001, the main trade union in banking and finance, the
Financial Services Union (Finansforbundet, FF) conducted a study based on
telephone interviews with its 1,200 current workplace union representative
 s (tillidsrepræsentanten) and 700 former representatives. The study,
published in April 2002, finds that although workplace union representatives
in the financial sector have a growing workload, they have little influence
on major issues such as the working environment, dismissals and wages.
Nevertheless, those involved find that their work as union representatives is
an interesting task.
In March 2002, Spain's UGT trade union confederation held its 38th confederal
congress. Cándido Méndez was re-elected as general secretary as part of an
expanded executive committee, and delegates approved various new demands in
areas such as working time reduction, employment stability and social
On 23 March 2002, Italy's Cgil trade union confederation organised a major
demonstration in Rome against the centre-right government's economic policy
and, following the murder of Marco Biagi, against terrorism. The event was
claimed to be Italy's largest demonstration since the Second World War.
Spain, Greece and Portugal have the EU's lowest pay levels, according to
comparative information produced in early 2002 by a 'Social Eurobarometer'
set up by the Catalan regional organisation of Spain's CC.OO trade union
The Norwegian Gender Equality Act  was adopted in 1978 for the purpose of
safeguarding the equal treatment of women and men in a range of areas,
including working life. A number of proposals for amendments to the Act have
been discussed recently, most of which relate to equality in working life.
The proposals were originally placed before parliament (Stortinget) in spring
2001 by the Labour Party (Det norske Arbeiderparti, DnA) government, which
resigned before the proposals were considered. The new centre-right minority
coalition government of the Conservative Party (Høyre), the Christian
Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti, KRF), and the Liberal Party (Venstre)
that entered office in autumn 2001 (NO0110108F ) placed the proposals
before parliament once again. There is a majority in favour of strengthening
the Gender Equality Act in parliament, and the amendments were thus expected
to be approved during April 2002.
In March 2002, an agreement between management and trade unions ended a
month-long dispute about pay and staff status at the FNAC music and book
store on the Champs-Elysées in Paris. The deal made it possible for wage
bargaining to be resumed for FNAC's other outlets.
On 28 March 2002, under the aegis of the Minister of Employment and Labour,
the Belgian social partners concluded a draft agreement dealing with the
resolution of industrial disputes, the simplification of employment promotion
schemes, and the harmonisation of the status of blue- and white-collar
workers. The social partners undertake to prioritise social dialogue in the
event of any strike action. The deal has removed a serious obstacle to
negotiations over a new intersectoral agreement for 2003-4.
On coming to office in November 2001, the new minority coalition government
of the Liberal Party (Venstre) and Conservative People's Party (Konservative
Folkeparti) announced that, as part of its programme for its first 100 days
in office, it would table a bill establishing a state unemployment 
insurance fund (UIF) as an alternative to the existing private UIFs (which
are administered by trade unions) (DK0112147F ). However, in spring 2002,
by agreement with the right-wing opposition Danish People's Party (Dansk
Folkeparti, DF), the government decided to withdraw the bill, which would
have given employees more freedom of choice in UIFs. However, the
government's proposal to allow the creation of cross-sector UIFs with a view
to promoting flexibility on the labour market will continue, with DF support.
Furthermore, if this measure does not have the desired effect in terms of
labour market flexibility, the bill on state UIFs can be tabled again at a
later stage, with the issue to be reconsidered in 2004 at the latest.
Against the background of relatively moderate pay rises in recent years
(DE0201201F ), most German trade unions have called for significant cost
increases of between 4% and 6.5% in the 2002 collective bargaining round.
In late March 2002, after a month of difficult and confrontational
bargaining, talks over a new collective agreement for the Greek banking
sector reached an impasse, and trade unions started to plan industrial
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
Access to key social services, especially education and healthcare, as well as stable family life and decent housing are necessary for the well-being and development of children. Ensuring that all children have these resources is an EU priority; the European Commission is currently undertaking to recommend a Child Guarantee to address the situations of children in need. Service provision has been complicated by the COVID-19 outbreak, however, and the pandemic has put psychological and material strains on families.
How can working conditions be improved to make work more sustainable over the life course? This question has been the guiding principle for analysis of the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey data during the period of Eurofound’s work programme for 2017–2020. This flagship report brings together the different research strands from this work and gives a comprehensive answer to the question. It includes an analysis of trends in working conditions, examining whether these are the same for all workers or whether inequalities between different groups of workers are increasing.
This report analyses the involvement of the national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, and their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs) and other key policy documents of the European Semester cycle.
This report builds on Eurofound's existing research on social mobility, assessing the distribution and transmission of wealth in Member States. It examines the roles of inheritance and household debt in explaining the transmission of advantage or disadvantage between the generations across Member States. The analysis is based on Eurosystem's Household Finance and Consumption Survey (HFCS).
This report will focus on assessing the employment impact of the COVID-19 crisis, including its effects across sectors and for different categories of workers. It will also be looking at measures implemented to limit negative effects following the Coronavirus outbreak in Europe.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
This report examines people's optimism about the future, for themselves and for others, and the extent to which it varies depending on one's social situation and perceptions of the quality of society. The study includes an analysis of the relationships between people’s perceptions of fairness and objective indicators of their social and economic situation and living standards.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation (flight crew) sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements.
The European Green Deal is at the very top of Member State agendas across the EU. This topical update maps the national discussions – in policy, public and research debates – on the potential, ongoing or already felt impact on work and employment of the transition to a low-carbon economy. It attempts to identify the most active actors involved in these discussions (governments, social partners, NGOs and so on) and their perspectives.
This report will draw from case studies of establishments across the EU that have introduced advanced digital technologies in the workplace. The technologies in focus are the Internet of Things, 3D printing and virtual and augmented reality. Each case study – illustrated in the report - will explore the approach or strategy taken by the establishment to manage the digital transition and the impact of the deployment of the technology on the work organisation and job quality.