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  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    In recent years, 'atypical' work – and particularly 'semi-subordinate' work
    (midway between dependent employment and self-employment) – has played a
    key role in employment growth in Italy, accounting for more than 40% of new
    jobs created. The most important of the non-dependent atypical forms of work
    is 'employer-coordinated freelance' work. Unlike temporary work, this form of
    employment relationship has continued to increase, at an average growth rate
    of 12% per year, and now involves almost 2.4 million workers. This increase
    has been matched by a substantial growth, in both quantitative and
    qualitative terms, of collective bargaining covering such workers, which has
    led to important agreements being reached not only at the company and
    territorial level but also at the sectoral and national levels. This article
    examines the situation in mid-2003.

  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    A new Labour Code came into effect on 1 March 2003, following the
    introduction of Law No. 53 of 2003 (the 'Labour Code law'). It aims to
    replace Romania's previous industrial relations rules, which were dominated
    by the assumptions of the former 'command economy' based on centralised
    planning. The new Code – made up of 13 titles, 37 chapters, 17 sections and
    298 articles – governs collective labour relations as a whole, involving
    employees (defined as Romanian citizens working inside or outside the
    country, and foreign citizens working for a Romanian employer in the country,
    including refugees), employers (individuals or companies with legal
    personality), trade unions and employers' organisations.

  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    Two national collective agreements for workers in the Italian tourism sector
    were signed in July 2003. The agreements' main provisions include an 11.5%
    wage increase over four years, the introduction of a supplementary health
    insurance scheme and the enhancement of decentralised bargaining.

  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    A new national collective agreement for the Italian insurance sector was
    signed in July 2003. As well as pay increases, the agreement contains a
    number of innovatory provisions, including: the creation of a national
    observatory on bullying, the establishment of a fund for the care of disabled
    workers; and enhanced information and consultation, including on equal
    opportunities issues.

  • Article
    8 Září 2003

    In late June 2003, Sweden's main trade union and employers' confederations
    agreed joint guidelines [1] for implementing the European framework agreement
    on telework [2] signed in July 2002 (EU0207204F [3]) by the EU-level central
    social partners - the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), the Council
    of European Professional and Managerial Staff (EUROCADRES)/European
    Confederation of Executives and Managerial Staff (CEC) liaison committee, the
    Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE)/the
    European Association of Craft, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (UEAPME)
    and the European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of
    Enterprises of General Economic Interest (CEEP). The EU-level telework
    agreement was the first cross-industry agreement between the social partners
    which was not intended to be implemented by an EU Directive, but by the
    national member organisations of the signatory parties 'in accordance with
    the procedures and practices specific to management and labour in the Member


  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    The Irish government is soon to consider a proposal to increase the five-year
    'range' during which civil servants can retire on a full pension, from the
    current 60-65 years of age to 62-67. This is among several suggestions to
    emerge from a working group which, for over two years, has been discussing
    the implementation of a major report from the Commission on Public Service
    Pensions, which was published in 2001. The Commission’s 2001 report had
    found that the cost of public service pensions would double between 1997 to
    2012, from EUR 807 million to EUR 1.7 billion, rising by a further EUR 1.27
    billion by 2027.

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    On 31 August 2003, the delegates at the 20th national congress of the German
    Metalworkers' Union (Industriegewerkschaft Metall, IG Metall) elected a new
    leadership for a four-year term of office. The new chair of the union is the
    previous vice-chair, Jürgen Peters, while the previous head of IG Metall's
    Baden-Württemberg district organisation, Berthold Huber, was elected as
    vice-chair. The percentages of votes obtained by both candidates, 66% and 67%
    respectively, were the lowest ever obtained in an uncontested leadership
    election in IG Metall's history.

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    The Confederation of British Industry (CBI), the Trades Union Congress (TUC)
    and CEEP UK- the British affiliates of the European social partner
    organisations, the Union of Industrial and Employers’ Confederations of
    Europe (UNICE), the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the
    European Centre of Enterprises with Public Participation and of Enterprises
    of General Economic Interest (CEEP) - have agreed a document [1] giving
    guidance on telework. Talks between the three organisations were prompted by
    the July 2002 agreement on teleworking [2] between their European-level
    counterparts (EU0207204F [3]), and were held under the auspices of the
    Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), which published the agreed guidance
    in August 2003.


  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    From 1 August 2003, all wages, pensions and benefits in Luxembourg have
    increased by 2.5%, as result of the country's automatic indexation system.

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    Poland's once powerful trade unions now organise only 18% of the workforce,
    one of the lowest unionisation rates in central and eastern Europe. The
    reasons for the weakness of Poland's trade union movement have been examined
    at a seminar held in May 2003 and in a book based on the discussions at the
    seminar. This article summarises the main arguments and findings.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications