Publications

Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    During 2003, trade unions at Poland's Stalowa Wola metalworking company have
    been organising industrial action in protest at the planned closure of the
    group's iron and steel works, with the loss of 1,400 jobs. The government has
    offered the workers to be made redundant assistance under a new programme to
    soften the effects of industrial restructuring.

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    According to data issued by the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic
    (Statistický úrad SR, SÚ SR), in 2002 the average nominal wage increase
    was 9.3%, up from 8.2% in the previous year (SK0207101N [1]). The average
    nominal monthly wage of an employee was SKK 13,511 in 2002. Taking into
    account data provided by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family
    (Ministerstvo práce, sociálnych vecí a rodiny Slovenskej republiky, MPSVR
    SR), this means an increase in average nominal wages of 151.2 % compared with
    1993 (the year that Slovakia became an independent state).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/real-wages-finally-increase-again

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    In early August 2003, the workforce of Factory Wagon SA, a privatised Polish
    railway rolling-stock producer and repairer, launched strikes and other
    protest action, with the immediate cause being several months' arrears in
    wage payments. The strike ended in late August when the debt-ridden firm was
    declared bankrupt, opening the way for the sale of its assets and possible
    survival of its operations and jobs.

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    On 22 July 2003, the Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
    Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) and the Chamber of Labour (Arbeiterkammer, AK)
    jointly presented a study on the working and living conditions of 'atypical'
    workers in Austria. The study (Atypisch beschäftigt - typisch für die
    Zukunft der Arbeit [1]) evaluates interviews conducted in 2002 with 528
    people who made use of special advisory services for 'atypical' workers
    offered by both ÖGB and AK. More precisely, the researchers’ focus group
    were self-employed people employed under either a 'free service contract'
    (freier Dienstvertrag) or a 'contract for work' (Werkvertrag) (TN0205101S
    [2]). According to Austrian labour law, both groups are classified as
    self-employed in the narrow sense, although they do not employ other people
    and often work for only one client. Actually, their working situation
    resembles to a great extent that of (dependent) employees. People working on
    a 'contract for work' basis (also referred to as the 'new self-employed', or
    neue Selbständige) are obliged to fulfil a certain, well-defined task,
    regardless of whether they do this themselves or subcontract to other people.
    For their part, 'free service contract' workers provide an (often fixed-term)
    ongoing service. Formally, they are not subject to the instructions of the
    client and are free to schedule their own working time. Working materials, in
    general, have to be made available to these workers by the client.

    [1] http://www.oegb.at/servlet/BlobServer?blobcol=urldokument&blobheader=application/pdf&blobkey=id&blobtable=Dokument&blobwhere=1060188977969
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/erm/comparative-information/economically-dependent-workers-employment-law-and-industrial-relations

  • Article
    7 Září 2003

    In August 2003, the Polish government named four coal mines which are to be
    closed in 2004, following an agreement reached with mineworkers' trade unions
    in 2002 on the closure of unprofitable mines. The announcement led to the
    unions calling strike action in the mines concerned, despite government
    assurances that new jobs or appropriate accompanying social measures will be
    arranged for all the miners to be made redundant.

  • CAR
    1 Září 2003

    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [1] and should be read in conjunction with it.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/sites/default/files/ef_files/eiro/2003/01/word/tn0211q_2.doc

  • Article
    26 Srpen 2003

    This article provides a brief overview of the industrial relations system
    that has emerged in Bulgaria since the period of economic and political
    transition began in 1989.

  • Article
    26 Srpen 2003

    On 11 June 2003, a tripartite meeting was held on the initiative of the
    Confederation of Independent Trade Unions in Bulgaria (CITUB [1]) to discuss
    the issue of unpaid wages. The meeting brought together representatives of
    the government, employers’ organisations and CITUB and its member branch
    federations, along with trade union officials from some of the companies
    involved.

    [1] http://www.knsb-bg.org/

  • Report summary
    26 Srpen 2003

    Proposals for a radical re-organisation of time arrangements over working life using a life-course perspective tend to challenge the traditional understanding of socio-economic issues. The ‘life course’ concept itself is not new, as it has figured prominently in debates on labour market, social security, demographic and working time issues since the 1960s. It is now back on the political agenda. The Foundation’s report, A new organisation of time over working life, addresses the subject of reorganising time arrangements specifically from the life course perspective. The report concludes that an explicit life course policy offers much potential as an approach to facilitating a new organisation of time throughout working life. This paper summarizes the findings of the project which are published in a report (EF0336). An information sheet on this topic is also available (EF0344).

  • Article
    25 Srpen 2003

    On 22 July 2003, theCouncil of the European Union adopted the 2003 employment
    guidelines [1] and recommendations [2] on employment policy to Member States,
    which had been proposed by the European Commission in April 2003. These
    guidelines and recommendations are drawn up within the context of the
    European employment strategy [3] (EES), which has been in place since 1997.
    Following a review of the EES undertaken in 2002 after five years of
    operation (EU0209204F [4]), and proposals for its streamlining, made by the
    Commission in a Communication [5] in September 2002 (EU0210206F [6]), the
    timing and the content has changed somewhat in 2003. Notably, the employment
    guidelines have been revised so as to: ensure a stronger link with EU
    economic policy coordination (through streamlined timetables); lay down fewer
    guidelines with a broader perspective; provide a medium-term time horizon in
    order to achieve an increased emphasis on results and outcomes; and
    strengthen the involvement of the social partners, local authorities and
    other stakeholders.

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/employment_strategy/prop_2003/adopted_guidelines_2003_en.htm
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/employment_strategy/prop_2003/adopted_recomm_2003_en.htm
    [3] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/employment_strategy/index_en.htm
    [4] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/commission-initiates-five-year-review-of-european-employment-strategy
    [5] http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/com/rpt/2002/com2002_0487en01.pdf
    [6] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/commission-seeks-to-streamline-employment-and-economic-strategies

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications