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  • Article
    21 Srpen 2003

    From 1 July 2003, the Labour Code of the Republic of Hungary was amended by
    Act XX of 2003. The modifications include the transposition of five European
    Union Directives on: working time (2000/34/EC [1]); fixed-term work
    (1999/70/EC [2]); part-time work (1997/81/EC [3]); transfers of undertakings
    (2001/23/EC [4]); and the working time of seafarers (1999/63/EC [5]).

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32000L0034&model=guichett
    [2] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32000L0034&model=guichett
    [3] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31997L0081&model=guichett
    [4] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=32001L0023&model=guichett
    [5] http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexapi!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=EN&numdoc=31999L0063&model=guichett

  • Article
    21 Srpen 2003

    On 30 April 2003, the centre-right coalition government published a
    parliamentary white paper on family policy, in which it recommends changes to
    the present regulations on parental leave (St Meld. nr 29 (2002-3) [1]). The
    main objective of the government’s proposals is to encourage men to spend
    more time at home with their children. To this end, it proposes to extend the
    so-called 'father quota', which is the part of the parental leave period
    reserved for the father. It also proposes to improve the compensation level
    for self-employed women during parental leave .

    [1] http://www.odin.dep.no/bfd/norsk/publ/stmeld/004001-040008/index-dok000-b-n-a.html

  • Article
    21 Srpen 2003

    Since the coalition government of the conservative People’s Party
    (Österreichische Volkspartei, ÖVP) and the populist Freedom Party
    (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, FPÖ) took office for the first time in
    February 2000 (it started a second term in February 2003), it has launched
    several initiatives to restructure the state-owned Austrian Federal Railways
    (Österreichische Bundesbahnen, ÖBB). The government’s aim has been to
    reduce the financial burden on the state arising from its legal obligation to
    compensate for ÖBB’s deficits. However, so far the two governing parties
    have not managed to reach a joint agreement on how to reorganise this public
    company. Recent ÖVP plans (presented in January 2003) to transform ÖBB into
    a holding company, heading several independently-operating enterprises
    specialising in sales, infrastructure, financing, personnel management etc,
    were strongly opposed by the Union of Railway Employees (Gewerkschaft der
    Eisenbahner, GdE) (AT0302201N [1]). The union argues that splitting up ÖBB
    would pave the way for the privatisation and sell-off of the company’s
    divisions one by one. With GdE threatening industrial action in the event of
    ÖBB being dismantled (AT0211201N [2]), restructuring measures such as those
    planned by ÖVP and – in principle – supported by the management have
    hitherto been blocked.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/railway-employees-threaten-strike-over-restructuring
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/dispute-over-railway-restructuring

  • Article
    21 Srpen 2003

    On 13 August 2003, the police raided the Fredericia shipyard and seven
    illegal workers – five Polish and two Philippine nationals – were
    arrested. This action was the result of several months’ investigation based
    on information from an alleged organiser of a network of illegal workers. The
    raid followed a tip-off from the local branch of the General Workers’ Union
    (Specialarbejderforbundet i Danmark, SiD) which had discovered that illegal
    workers employed by a subcontractor were to work on the surface treatment of
    a ship. The illegal workers at Fredericia were paid around DKK 45 per hour,
    irrespective of the time of the day and the day of the week when they were
    working. This is about one-third of the wage paid to Danish workers under the
    relevant collective agreements.

  • Article
    18 Srpen 2003

    On 27 May 2003, representatives of all trade unions affiliated to the the
    Confederation of German Trade Unions (Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund, DGB)
    signed a package ofnational cross-sector collective agreements [1] for
    temporary agency workers with the Federal Association of Temporary Employment
    Agencies (Bundesverband Zeitarbeit Personal-Dienstleistungen, BZA), whose
    members include some of the major companies in the sector. Thepackage [2]
    consists of a general framework collective agreement on employment conditions
    (Manteltarifvertrag) - the final version of which was signed on 11 June 2003
    - a framework collective agreement on pay grades (Entgeltrahmentarifvertrag)
    and a collective agreement on pay (Entgelttarifvertrag). Two days later, on
    29 May 2003, a similarpackage [3] of collective agreements was agreed by the
    DGB affiliates and a second employers' association, the Association of German
    Temporary Employment Agencies (Interessengemeinschaft Deutscher
    Zeitarbeitsunternehmen, iGZ), representing a number of small and medium-sized
    temporary agencies.

    [1] http://www.bza.de/downloads/VE_Zeitarbeit_DGB_BZA.pdf
    [2] http://www.dgb.de/themen/Tarifpolitik/Zeitarbeit/index.htm/
    [3] http://www.dgb.de/themen/Tarifpolitik/Zeitarbeit/index.htm/

  • Article
    18 Srpen 2003

    July 2003 saw a wave of protests by trade unions represented at Polish
    National Railways (PKP) against the planned closure of loss-making local
    services. Faced with the unions' threat of a general rail strike, PKP
    management and the government agreed to cut the number of services to be
    axed. However, the continuing restructuring of PKP, which is facing major
    financial difficulties, suggests that further unrest cannot be ruled out.

  • Article
    18 Srpen 2003

    A study published jointly in June 2003 by the Research Institute for the
    Finnish Economy (Elinkeinoelämän tutkimuslaitos, ETLA) and the Labour
    Institute for Economic Research (Palkansaajien tutkimuslaitos) examines views
    on the Finnish wage bargaining system. The study, based on a questionnaire
    survey, asked employers and three categories of employees - blue-collar
    workers, white-collar workers and higher-level workers - about their views on
    the present system and its future development. The same questions were also
    put to private and public sector social partner organisations. The questions
    dealt with issues including local bargaining, profit-sharing, taxation and
    social security. The firms concerned were examined in terms of 12 variables,
    including size, sector, ownership, international activities, workforce age
    structure and share of women and temporary employees in the workforce.

  • Article
    18 Srpen 2003

    The total number of women in employment (employees and self-employed)
    increased by more than 1.7 million in the period from 1995 to 2002, according
    to a study providing an overview of major labour market trends for the whole
    of Germany since unification in 1990, published by the German Federal
    Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland, Destatis) in July
    2003 (German labour market trends. In the spotlight [1], Destatis, 2003). At
    the same time, the share of women in overall employment has been growing
    constantly since the mid-1990s. The report argues that these increases
    reflect a general trend towards a decreasing gap between men and women in the
    German labour market, although the total female employment rate has not yet
    reached the male level. However, data from the 2002 EU Labour Force Survey
    indicate that regional discrepancies still prevail: in the western part of
    the country, about 46% of women aged between 15 and 65 were in employment (ie
    either self-employed or an employee), compared with 61% of men; while in the
    east of Germany, this difference was less pronounced with some 44% of the
    female population and 53% of the male population in employment.

    [1] http://www.destatis.de/download/e/veroe/labourmtrends.pdf

  • Article
    17 Srpen 2003

    Following the election of the Labour Party government in May 1997, the new
    Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, signaled a clear shift in UK
    policy towards the European single currency in a major speech to Parliament
    in October 1997. Whereas the previous, 'eurosceptic' Conservative Party
    government had negotiated an 'opt-out' from the final stage of European
    Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) as part of the Treaty on European Union, Mr
    Brown indicated that the Labour government was committed to the principle of
    joining the European single currency, but that there had been insufficient
    convergence between the economies of the UK and those of prospective members
    of the euro area (UK9802102F [1]). Thereafter, the main features of the
    government’s policy towards EMU were that:

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined-working-conditions-business/emu-and-uk-industrial-relations

  • Article
    17 Srpen 2003

    In July 2003, a large-scale strike occurred at the Belgian Post Office,
    triggered by the implementation of a new system for organising delivery
    rounds, which is one of 10 measures being introduced by management in the
    context of the EU-wide liberalisation of the postal sector. At the end of the
    month, trade unions and management concluded a pre-agreement that halted
    industrial action until mid-September, when the outcome of further
    negotiations will be known.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications