Practices such as delayed payment of wages and failure to make social
security contributions on employees' pay are relatively widespread among
Polish employers. The problem is not new but has recently received renewed
attention from trade unions and the media. Research conducted in May 2003 by
the Warsaw School of Economics sheds light on the nature of these unfair
employer practices, indicating that some 9% of employees do not receive their
wages on time and 17% do not have their social security contributions paid in
full. The situation is worst in smaller companies and those in private Polish
The unemployment rate in Poland rose to 18.1% in 2002, with over 3.2 million
people registered as jobless and long-term unemployment rising rapidly.
Unemployment is becoming a major and widespread problem, no longer confined
to specific industries or regions (though significant geographical
differences persist). This article examines the situation in 2002 in detail,
and looks at the measures being used in the fight against unemployment.
The development of policies and the delivery of services to promote the social inclusion of people with a chronic physical or mental illness or disability are crucial steps in achieving a more inclusive society. This report examines how to drive this process forward.
Changes to traditional gender roles and the labour market are forcing a rethink of conventional work-life patterns. Individuals are calling for a better quality of life, while employers require greater flexibility in the workplace. The idea of reorganising time over the whole course of working is one possible response. This report offers a conceptual framework to consider time arrangements and working life, linking this to measures to improve quality of life.
What are the working-time preferences of the workforce in Europe? Which schedules are the most compatible with family and other commitments? These questions are relevant to European employment policy and for the working-time policy negotiations of the social partners and are examined in this article.
In March 2003, a government-appointed commissioner presented a report on
'Artists and the social security systems' (Konstnärerna och
trygghetssystemen , SOU 2003: 21). According to his remit
(Kommittédirektiv 2001:90), the commissioner was charged with investigating
whether professional artists meet with particular problems in the social
security system and, if so, identifying the causes of these problems. In
presenting his findings, commissioner Anders Forsman concluded that artists
are 'atypical' in relation to the system and do indeed encounter many
problems. According to the report, most of the problems follow from the
application of various laws and regulations and not from the legal framework
itself. A considerable number of cases are taken to court, which is costly
both for the individual and for society. No common view of how to deal with
artists' problems exists among the various systems, and there is no
coordination among them. Until such a coordinated view is established, there
will never be any increased knowledge and the problems of application will
never be overcome, the commissioner concludes.
In December 2002, Lena Nekby, a researcher at the Trade Union Institute for
Economic Research (Fackföreningsrörelsens Institut för Ekonomisk
Forskning, FIEF), published a report on how long it takes various immigrant
groups to integrate on the Swedish labour market (How long does it take to
integrate? Employment convergence of immigrants and natives in Sweden ,
FIEF Working Paper Series, No. 185, 2002). The report uses longitudinal data
covering the period 1990–2000, with information on over 200,000
individuals, of whom more than 19,000 were born abroad.
In February 2003, the Minister of Labour proposed a draft 'pact for labour
and development' to trade unions and employers' organisations represented on
Poland's Tripartite Commission for Social and Economic Affairs, with the aim
of coming up with a comprehensive solution to address many of the problems
currently facing the country. Opposition to the idea of such a pact from the
NSZZ Solidarność trade union initially prevented progress on the proposal
but - following agreement to drop the term 'pact'- negotiations began in May
on the issues raised in the draft.
In 2001, new legislation in Poland established regional social dialogue
commissions, involving representatives of regional trade union and employers'
organisations, regional government and the national government. The role of
the 16 commissions is formally a consultative one, but participation in their
work is, on the whole, highly regarded by the social partners and by the
authorities. This article examines the development of the regional
commissions, which were subject to important legislative changes in 2002, and
their current position in 2003, drawing on recent research into their impact.
At the end of 2002, three-quarters of Dutch employees were covered by
collective agreements containing childcare arrangements. However, in 2003, in
anticipation of new childcare provision legislation due to come into force in
2005, employers are cutting back the proportion of childcare costs that they
meet under such agreements. At the same time, the cost of childcare is
increasing as market forces take hold in the childcare sector and labour
costs rise because of the abolition of state-subsidised employment and wage
increases for regular staff.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This report captures the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the quality of life of older citizens, including the impact on their well-being, finances, employment and social inclusion. It explores the effects on the use of care services and older people’s reliance on other support. The report presents policy measures that have been implemented in EU Member States to support older people along all of the above-mentioned dimensions.
This report examines a number of collective labour disputes involving industrial action in EU Member States, Norway and the UK. It provides a comprehensive study of each labour dispute, including information on industrial action events and the context for each dispute, as well as the relevant topics, actors, attempts at resolution and outcomes. Different types of collective labour disputes and their occurrence in various countries and sectors are presented, indicating how they are linked to different industrial relations regimes.
Social dialogue lies at the heart of the EU treaties and governance. Social partners are core stakeholders who can assess policy needs and contribute to policy formation and to designing and implementing national reforms in the social and employment fields. This report focuses on the timely and meaningful involvement of national social partners in the preparation of the new resilience and recovery plans and the national reform programmes (NRPs) that were temporarily integrated under the European Semester in 2021.
This policy brief explores the social situation of Europeans with a disability during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using data from the March–April 2021 Living, working and COVID-19 e-survey, it compares the situation of respondents with and without a disability in three areas: perceptions of the healthcare system, mental well-being and financial precarity.
This report examines the phenomenon of overtime in the EU, providing a comparative description of how it is regulated in EU Member States. It also assesses how contentious the issue can be and investigates the reasons behind the various disputes and debates. Finally, the report attempts to quantify and characterise the share of overtime for which workers are not paid or compensated. The analysis is based on information collected in EU Member States by the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2021 yearbook, provides a snapshot of the latest developments in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2021. The range of topics as a result is broad, from the growing diversity of employment across EU regions to developments in minimum wages, and of course the continuing impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Every year, Eurofound compiles a report summarising the key developments in minimum wages across EU countries. The report explains how minimum wages are set and describes the role of social partners, covering the evolution of statutory rates, collectively agreed wages and the national debates on these issues.
This report investigates the practical implementation of the European Works Council (EWC) Directive at company level. It explores the challenges faced by existing EWCs and provides examples of identified solutions and remaining issues from the point of view of both workers and management. The report looks at the way that EWCs meet the requirements of the EWC Directive in terms of establishing processes of information and consultation.
This report will map the existing regulations on telework in European Union Member States, including in legislation and collective agreements. It will present the most recent changes to these regulations and shed light on how the future of (tele)work could be regulated at both national and EU level, in order to improve working conditions in telework arrangements and reduce the risks associated with telework and with specific ways of working remotely.
The civil aviation sector has been deeply impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is one of the most severe crises the sector has ever experienced, giving rise to a number of significant challenges for companies and workers alike. This study will explore the role of social dialogue and collective bargaining in how the sector is adapting to the pandemic. What kinds of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?