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  • Article
    8 Červenec 2003

    In June 2003, the Dutch Trade Union Federation (FNV) decided on major
    cutbacks and restructuring as a result of its poor financial position. Its
    budget is to be cut by a quarter, activities are to be reduced (notably at
    regional level) and up to 90 out of 240 jobs may be lost.

  • Article
    8 Červenec 2003

    A referendum on extending the right to reinstatement for unfairly dismissed
    workers provided by Article 18 of the Workers' Statute to all companies (it
    currently applies only to those with over 15 workers) was held in Italy in
    June 2003. However, it failed because only 25.7% of the Italian electorate
    went to the polls, while a turn-out of more than 50% was needed to make the
    referendum valid. The referendum reopened divisions between the trade unions.

  • Article
    8 Červenec 2003

    In May 2003, all companies in the Luxembourg finance sector were asked to
    adopt a set of guidelines on tackling sexual harassment and to distribute
    them to their workforces. This initiative was launched by organisations
    representing the sector's employers, personnel managers and occupational
    health services, and includes the creation of a panel of external
    confidential advisers to whom employees can refer cases of sexual harassment.

  • Article
    8 Červenec 2003

    Slovakia is one of the EU candidate countries that have asked for support
    within the framework of the EU's PHARE [1] programme in the reinforcement of
    social dialogue and collective bargaining at all relevant levels and in the
    implementation of relevant EU Directives into national legislation. Thus, in
    2001, representatives from Slovakia, the Netherlands and the UK concluded a
    'twinning' covenant for PHARE project SR 0006.01. The twinning involves Dutch
    and British experts from governments, employers' organisations and trade
    unions transmitting their knowledge and experience to their Slovak
    colleagues. The project aims to achieve the following results:

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/pas/phare/

  • Article
    8 Červenec 2003

    In June 2003, the Portuguese government submitted a draft 'Social contract
    for competitiveness and employment' to the social partners, aimed at
    achieving convergence with average EU levels of productivity and purchasing
    power, combating tax fraud and evasion, and increasing competitiveness. The
    government wants employers and trade unions to agree to pay moderation and
    biannual wage bargaining, along with investment in innovation and training
    and a review of company taxation.

  • Article
    8 Červenec 2003

    In late 2000, the Swedish government set up a governmental working time
    committee (Kommittén för nya arbetstids- och semesterregler, KNAS), with
    social partner involvement, to examine the entire system of legislation on
    working time and leave and make proposals for reform (SE0101176N [1]). In
    June 2002, the committee issued a report (/SOU 2002:58/) proposing new
    legislation to give all workers an additional five days of leave per year
    (SE0206105F [2]). On 17 June 2003, it presented its final report (SOU 2003:54
    [3]), calling for a simplification of current rules on annual and other forms
    of leave for employees.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/working-time-legislation-to-be-examined-again
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/committee-proposes-five-more-days-of-leave
    [3] http://naring.regeringen.se/propositioner_mm/sou/pdf/sou2003_54a.pdf

  • Article
    8 Červenec 2003

    In 2002, Poland's State Labour Inspection found that, overall, compliance by
    employers with labour law in terms of payment of remuneration and other
    employee benefits improved somewhat. However, the total value of unpaid wages
    and benefits rose sharply, in a context of economic difficulties for
    employers and the economy.

  • Article
    8 Červenec 2003

    In June 2003, Telefónica de España - the Spanish fixed telephony business
    of the Telefónica group - announced plans for a workforce reduction of
    around 11% in the short term, in order to deal with market difficulties and
    improve competitiveness. Negotiations are due to start on a redundancy
    procedure with trade unions.

  • Article
    7 Červenec 2003

    The reduction of working time has become a central bargaining demand for
    Hungarian trade unions at national level in recent years. In Hungary, regular
    working time is regulated virtually solely by the Labour Code, as its
    reduction is rarely an issue for sectoral or company-level collective
    agreements. The 40-hour statutory working week has not changed since 1992,
    though a minor decrease in annual working time took place in the 1990s owing
    to the introduction of new public holidays. Although the 2002 election
    programme of the Hungarian Socialist Party (Magyar Szocialista Párt,MSZP
    [1]), now the major party in the coalition government, made promises
    concerning the reduction of working time (HU0206101F [2]), until now the
    government has not acted on this issue.

    [1] http://www.mszp.hu/
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/victorious-mszp-promises-comprehensive-reform-of-industrial-relations-system

  • Article
    7 Červenec 2003

    According to Latvian labour law, the minimum wage paid may not be lower than
    the minimum set by the government. The national minimum wage is not linked to
    any economically-based income indicator, with the cabinet determining the
    minimum wage for 'normal-time' employees and the minimum hourly rate on the
    basis of fiscal and social considerations. From a very low level - EUR 3.48
    in 1992 (1 LVL currently equals 0.661 EUR) - the monthly minimum wage has
    increased to EUR 105.9 in 2003. The government: raised the minimum wage twice
    in 1992 (to EUR 5.07 and EUR 11.35); doubled it in 1993 (to EUR 22.70);
    raised it twice in 1994 (to EUR 34.04 and EUR 42.36); increased it in 1996
    (to EUR 57.49), 1998 (to EUR 63.54), 1999 (to EUR 75.64) and 2001 (to EUR
    90.77); and set it at EUR 105.9 from 1 January 2003.

Series

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications