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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    France's second bill on the 35-hour week, under parliamentary discussion in
    autumn 1999, will exclude many managerial and professional staff from the
    regulations on the length of working time applicable to all employees. Their
    maximum working time will be expressed as 217 days per year, with few
    restrictions related to the number of hours worked. These measures have
    provoked heated responses from the trade unions, which suggests that a lively
    debate will ensue over this issue in parliament.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The first half of 1999 saw a substantial increase in the use of temporary
    agency work in Italy. Projections estimate that by the end of the year the
    number of temporary agency workers will stand at 200,000. Agency work is on
    the agenda of the social dialogue between the government and social partners
    in autumn 1999.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Over 1999, a committee of experts set up in February by the Dutch Minister of
    Social Affairs and Employment has been examining possible reform of the law
    governing dismissal. Although reform of dismissals law has been attempted
    frequently in the past, the prevailing law has remained largely unchanged
    over the last half century. Nonetheless, the law's application in practice
    has changed.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    From January 2000, insurance for work-related accidents and occupational
    illnesses will be obligatory for Portugal's numerous self-employed workers,
    many of whom work in the construction sector where the level of accidents is
    the highest. The new legislation is one more step towards defining the status
    of self-employed workers, but the trade unions see it as a means of applying
    pressure to clarify the status of workers in situations of bogus

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In a report published in September 1999, the Union of Industrial and
    Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE) outlines its vision for social
    Europe beyond 2000. The document, entitled "Releasing Europe's employment
    potential - companies' views on European social policy beyond 2000,"
    identifies unemployment as Europe's most fundamental economic and social
    problem and sees competitiveness as one of the key solutions to economic and
    social challenges, arguing that this should therefore be the underlying
    concern throughout EU policy. UNICE states that, in order to translate growth
    into employment, Europe needs to address the issues of economic globalisation
    more effectively. It is argued that the high unemployment rates in Europe are
    caused not by a lack of demand, but by structural problems.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The reduction in the level of unemployment in France over the past two years
    accelerated during July 1999. This development has fuelled government
    optimism, but trade unions and employers' organisations were more varied in
    their reactions.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The industrial restructuring plan announced in July 1999 by Tabacalera, the
    Spanish tobacco firm, will involve a reduction in the number of factories and
    a 15% reduction in the workforce. The plan has met with a negative response
    from the trade unions, the regions affected and the government.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In July 1999, as part of an investigation into the employment and industrial
    relations implications for the UK of EU Economic and Monetary Union (EMU),
    and specifically the single currency, the House of Commons employment
    subcommittee heard evidence from senior management representatives of two
    leading manufacturing companies in the UK - Unilever and Vauxhall Motors.
    Following a meeting with the governor and deputy governor of the Bank of
    England in May, which explored the macroeconomic implications of EMU, the
    Members of Parliament (MP s) on the subcommittee were keen to discuss the
    practical implications for firms in the UK. The witnesses invited to give
    evidence were Bruce Warman, director of personnel at GM Vauxhall Motors UK,
    Richard Greenhalgh, chair of Unilever-UK Ltd, and Michael Samuel, UK national
    finance director of Unilever plc.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, the closure was announced of Op Computer, an important
    Italian information technology company, created two years previously from a
    division of Olivetti. The courts decided not to grant any further reprieves
    to the company's management and declared the firm bankrupt. Workers then
    occupied the premises in protest.


  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2020. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications