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  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    In October 1999, the parties in the Netherlands' coalition government reached
    a compromise on proposed legislation which will give part-time employees the
    right to reduce or increase their working hours. Under the draft law, trade
    unions and employers can make alternative arrangements in collective
    agreements, otherwise this legal right applies. Employers can only deny
    employee requests to increase or cut working hours on the grounds that this
    specifically conflicts with business interests.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    September and October 1999 have been marked by a number of protest actions
    against expenditure cuts in some areas of the Danish public sector. These
    have notably included actions by parents in Copenhagen and some other
    municipalities against cutbacks in the area of daycare for children, and by
    primary school teachers in several municipalities against cutbacks in their
    area, related to the adoption of municipal budgets for 2000. These budgets
    must, by law, be settled by 15 October 1999 and objections could thus occur
    up until this point.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    On 2-3 September 1999, the European Trade Union Federation - Textiles
    Clothing and Leather (ETUF-TCL) adopted guidelines on collective bargaining
    coordination, in the form of an internal sectoral protocol. The guidelines
    constitute the latest step towards the promotion of social dialogue and the
    coordination of collective bargaining policy in the sectors covered by
    ETUF-TCL. European-level social dialogue in these sectors has so far resulted
    in developments such as a code of conduct on minimum human rights at work
    (EU9709150N [1]) and a charter on child labour (EU9810131F [2]).


  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    The results of the 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey [1] (WERS 98),
    published in September 1999, show that job security guarantees are
    significantly more widespread in the financial services sector than in almost
    every other part of the economy. Staff in almost 40% of workplaces in
    financial services are covered by a job security or no-compulsory redundancy
    policy. This compares with just 8% of all private sector workplaces, and 21%
    of establishments in the public sector.


  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    The privatisation of the Italian electric utility, Enel, began at the end of
    October 1999. On 30 September 1999, the Ministry of Industry and trade unions
    signed an agreement setting out binding employment and industrial relations
    criteria for the privatisation of the company, which may set an example for
    future privatisations and liberalisation in Italy.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    On 19 October 1999, the bill on France's second law on the 35-hour working
    week was passed on its first reading by the National Assembly. This
    legislation, which should become law by the end of 1999, lays down new
    statutory norms for the duration of working time and continues a policy of
    reducing social security contributions on low-waged jobs.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    A joint committee established by the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions
    (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge, LO) and the Confederation of Norwegian Business
    and Industry (Næringslivets Hovedorganisasjon, NHO) has been considering
    changes to Norwegian working time schedules. The committee's report examines
    different aspects of the issue of working time, as well as flexibility in a
    short- and long-term perspective. The report, which was made public in
    September 1999, originates in the 1998 spring pay settlement, when the
    Norwegian United Federation of Trade Unions (Fellesforbundet) and the
    Federation of Norwegian Manufacturing Industries (Teknologibedriftenes
    Landsforening, TBL) jointly asked their main confederations to deliberate
    over the issue of future working time schedules (NO9805164F [1]). The request
    received support from the social partners in other bargaining areas. The
    parties emphasise that the committee's mandate is to look at both "the
    individual employee's need for increased flexibility at various stages in
    working life, and the need of companies for flexibility in the face of
    increasing competition".


  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    On 14 October 1999, during a debate in the Danish parliament (Folketinget),
    the Minister of Labour, Ove Hygum, was asked the following question by the
    labour affairs spokesperson of the Christian People's Party (Kristeligt
    Folkeparti) Ole M Nielsen: "What initiatives will the government take in
    order to limit or avoid the use of collective industrial action within areas
    of social importance in the health sector, and simultaneously secure the
    rights of the employees to a necessary extent?" Mr Hygum answered: "None".

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    A ministerial conference to address issues related to equal opportunities and
    employment was held in Helsinki on 30 September and 1 October 1999, organised
    by the Finnish Ministry of Employment, Social Affairs and Health as part of
    the Finnish EU Presidency. The conference was attended by the new
    Commissioner for Employment and Social Affairs Anna Diamantopoulou and by
    ministers from national governments with responsibility for employment and
    equality issues (as well as members of the European Parliament and social
    partner representatives). The conference focused on "mainstreaming" the
    gender aspect both in employment policy and when integrating social security
    and taxation issues into employment policy.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    On 23 September 1999, the Department of Health announced that negotiations
    with the British Medical Association (BMA) about junior doctors' working
    hours and overtime pay had resulted in a draft agreement on new contractual
    arrangements. The negotiations followed a decision by the BMA junior doctors'
    conference in June to move to a ballot on industrial action over long hours
    and low overtime pay (UK9906113N [1]). According to the Department of Health,
    the proposed agreement would "modernise junior doctors' pay, reduce hours and
    improve working conditions", and would "provide the opportunity, over a
    three-year period, to see that junior doctors on average work no more than 56
    hours a week".



  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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