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  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    The Austrian government took major initiatives during its Presidency of the
    EU in the second half of 1998, in order to make employment/unemployment
    issues a top priority at EU level. In line with the agreed EU Employment
    Guidelines [1], the Austrian government has pursued a National Action Plan
    (NAP) in 1998 [2] (AT9901120F [3]) and 1999 [4]. In 1999, ATS 11.15 billion
    has been allocated for NAP programmes.


  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    The Finnish Ministry of Labour organised a conference on "Working time in
    Europe, towards a European working time policy" in October 1999. Developments
    in this field are being followed closely among the EU Member States. The
    French initiative to establish a statutory 35-hour working week was much
    discussed at the conference, but it seems that there is not much preparedness
    for a general cut in working time, even though many research studies indicate
    that reducing hours through reorganising work would benefit both parties and
    could decrease unemployment. The conference also highlighted differences on
    possible working time negotiations between the EU-level social partners.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    The internet and world-wide web are becoming increasingly important in
    Norwegian working life, and social partner organisations are also taking
    advantage of new technology in their organisational activity - partly in
    order to improve communication between members and representatives and partly
    to inform society at large about their activity. Most Norwegian trade unions
    and employers' organisations have developed their own websites [1]. Although
    the quality and ambitions of website information vary, there is a general
    tendency towards increased utilisation of the internet and web as a channel
    for communication and information exchange. As such, members and non-members
    alike are being given the opportunity to keep up to date with developments in
    wage negotiations, further and continuing education, and other important
    work-related issues and activities. The internet is also becoming more
    important in the internal activity of social partner organisations, for
    example to train and educate trade union representatives or to improve
    communication between the central bodies of organisations and representatives
    at different levels.


  • Newsletter
    3 Říjen 1999

    Communiqué is the newsletter of the Foundation It is published 10 times per year and provides up-to-date news and information on the Foundation's work and research. The November issue contains the following articles: Working time; Gender in work organisation; New work programme.

  • Newsletter
    1 Říjen 1999

    Communiqué is the newsletter of the Foundation. The October issue contains the following articles: Financial participation; Chairing the Foundation; Accessible workplaces.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The reduction in the level of unemployment in France over the past two years
    accelerated during July 1999. This development has fuelled government
    optimism, but trade unions and employers' organisations were more varied in
    their reactions.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The industrial restructuring plan announced in July 1999 by Tabacalera, the
    Spanish tobacco firm, will involve a reduction in the number of factories and
    a 15% reduction in the workforce. The plan has met with a negative response
    from the trade unions, the regions affected and the government.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In autumn 1999, a law revising the Labour Procedural Code has been approved
    by Portugal's Council of Ministers and now awaits affirmation by the
    President of the Republic and official publication. The upcoming changes in
    procedures for court cases on labour and employment issues involves a
    considerable broadening of trade unions' abilities to act in such cases.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In July 1999, as part of an investigation into the employment and industrial
    relations implications for the UK of EU Economic and Monetary Union (EMU),
    and specifically the single currency, the House of Commons employment
    subcommittee heard evidence from senior management representatives of two
    leading manufacturing companies in the UK - Unilever and Vauxhall Motors.
    Following a meeting with the governor and deputy governor of the Bank of
    England in May, which explored the macroeconomic implications of EMU, the
    Members of Parliament (MP s) on the subcommittee were keen to discuss the
    practical implications for firms in the UK. The witnesses invited to give
    evidence were Bruce Warman, director of personnel at GM Vauxhall Motors UK,
    Richard Greenhalgh, chair of Unilever-UK Ltd, and Michael Samuel, UK national
    finance director of Unilever plc.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, the closure was announced of Op Computer, an important
    Italian information technology company, created two years previously from a
    division of Olivetti. The courts decided not to grant any further reprieves
    to the company's management and declared the firm bankrupt. Workers then
    occupied the premises in protest.


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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