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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, the Dutch government presented proposals for a radical
    reform of the tax system, whereby the tax base will be broadened, the tax
    burden shifted and higher environmental taxes levied. The social partners
    have generally been critical of the plan.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The advantages of Denmark joining the third stage of EU Economic and Monetary
    Union (EMU, or Den Økonomiske og Monetære Union, ØMU) far outweigh the
    disadvantages. On the other hand, seen in the light of the economic policy
    which Denmark has pursued since the end of the 1980s, it would not trigger
    economic chaos if, following a new referendum, the Danes chose to remain
    outside EMU. However, if they do, they will of course lose the advantages
    connected with EMU.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In October 1999, the Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA) is 25 years old.
    At the time of its adoption in 1974, the HASAWA was hailed as a landmark
    piece of legislation that brought 8 million mainly public service workers
    within the scope of the law and stimulated greater interest in health and
    safety amongst employers and trade unions. Although the UK's health and
    safety record compares favourably with most other EU countries, anniversary
    celebrations are muted. There is a growing sense that the existing regulatory
    framework is ill-adapted to the changing labour market of the late 1990s.
    Whilst employers are anxious about whether they are complying with health and
    safety requirements, employees and trade unions express concern about the
    relatively few prosecutions for health and safety offences and the low levels
    of fines imposed on employers when breaches of the HASAWA are proven.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, a new national collective agreement for the Italian
    commerce sector was signed. The agreement's provisions include: wage
    increases; a working time reduction linked to flexibility; new part-time work
    regulations; and new sickness and maternity leave regulations.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, French MP Catherine Génisson submitted a report on
    equality between women and men at work, commissioned by the Prime Minister.
    The report, entitled "More mixing in the labour market for greater equality
    between men and women", advocates various measures to ensure "real equality."

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Since 1994, the first stage of reforming and gradually privatising the
    federal railway system in Germany has been implemented. This has included the
    transformation of the federal railways in eastern and western Germany into a
    public company, Deutsche Bahn AG (DB), and its reorganisation into several
    divisions free to operate competitively in the transport market under their
    own responsibility. On 9 September 1999, DB presented a /Report on personnel
    and social issues, 1994-8/ (Personal- und Sozialbericht 1994-8) which
    describes important industrial relations and employment developments.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, Greece's GSEE trade union confederation presented a
    proposal calling for higher unemployment benefits. Despite legislative
    provisions that the daily rate of benefit should not fall below two-thirds of
    the average level of unskilled workers' wages, it is now worth less than

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The Bank of Ireland and Ulster Bank, two of Ireland's largest banks, have
    concluded deals with the Irish Bank Officials' Association (IBOA) trade union
    on special "Millennium payments" for time worked on Millennium eve, 31
    December 1999, and the subsequent weekend. While the payments are largely
    aimed at information technology (IT) staff required to monitor the computer
    problems associated with the year 2000 "Millennium bug" (whereby some
    computers will be unable to deal with the change in date), they will apply to
    any non-IT staff who may also be needed. These are the among first agreements
    of significance to be negotiated in the Republic in advance of the Millennium
    weekend (IE9905279N [1]).


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Over August and September 1999, trade unions and employers aired their views
    on Spain's forthcoming state Budget for 2000. Employers' proposals included a
    call for a cut in social security contributions, while employers focused on
    issues such as unemployment cover and pension increases. The government has
    largely maintained its positions, though apparently some concessions will be


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications