In September 1999, the Dutch government presented proposals for a radical
reform of the tax system, whereby the tax base will be broadened, the tax
burden shifted and higher environmental taxes levied. The social partners
have generally been critical of the plan.
A new law introducing wide-ranging changes to the rules governing temporary
agency work in Portugal was published at the beginning of September 1999. The
law amends various aspects of the existing legal framework, dating from 1989.
The advantages of Denmark joining the third stage of EU Economic and Monetary
Union (EMU, or Den Økonomiske og Monetære Union, ØMU) far outweigh the
disadvantages. On the other hand, seen in the light of the economic policy
which Denmark has pursued since the end of the 1980s, it would not trigger
economic chaos if, following a new referendum, the Danes chose to remain
outside EMU. However, if they do, they will of course lose the advantages
connected with EMU.
In October 1999, the Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA) is 25 years old.
At the time of its adoption in 1974, the HASAWA was hailed as a landmark
piece of legislation that brought 8 million mainly public service workers
within the scope of the law and stimulated greater interest in health and
safety amongst employers and trade unions. Although the UK's health and
safety record compares favourably with most other EU countries, anniversary
celebrations are muted. There is a growing sense that the existing regulatory
framework is ill-adapted to the changing labour market of the late 1990s.
Whilst employers are anxious about whether they are complying with health and
safety requirements, employees and trade unions express concern about the
relatively few prosecutions for health and safety offences and the low levels
of fines imposed on employers when breaches of the HASAWA are proven.
In September 1999, a new national collective agreement for the Italian
commerce sector was signed. The agreement's provisions include: wage
increases; a working time reduction linked to flexibility; new part-time work
regulations; and new sickness and maternity leave regulations.
In September 1999, French MP Catherine Génisson submitted a report on
equality between women and men at work, commissioned by the Prime Minister.
The report, entitled "More mixing in the labour market for greater equality
between men and women", advocates various measures to ensure "real equality."
Since 1994, the first stage of reforming and gradually privatising the
federal railway system in Germany has been implemented. This has included the
transformation of the federal railways in eastern and western Germany into a
public company, Deutsche Bahn AG (DB), and its reorganisation into several
divisions free to operate competitively in the transport market under their
own responsibility. On 9 September 1999, DB presented a /Report on personnel
and social issues, 1994-8/ (Personal- und Sozialbericht 1994-8) which
describes important industrial relations and employment developments.
In September 1999, Greece's GSEE trade union confederation presented a
proposal calling for higher unemployment benefits. Despite legislative
provisions that the daily rate of benefit should not fall below two-thirds of
the average level of unskilled workers' wages, it is now worth less than
The Bank of Ireland and Ulster Bank, two of Ireland's largest banks, have
concluded deals with the Irish Bank Officials' Association (IBOA) trade union
on special "Millennium payments" for time worked on Millennium eve, 31
December 1999, and the subsequent weekend. While the payments are largely
aimed at information technology (IT) staff required to monitor the computer
problems associated with the year 2000 "Millennium bug" (whereby some
computers will be unable to deal with the change in date), they will apply to
any non-IT staff who may also be needed. These are the among first agreements
of significance to be negotiated in the Republic in advance of the Millennium
weekend (IE9905279N ).
Over August and September 1999, trade unions and employers aired their views
on Spain's forthcoming state Budget for 2000. Employers' proposals included a
call for a cut in social security contributions, while employers focused on
issues such as unemployment cover and pension increases. The government has
largely maintained its positions, though apparently some concessions will be
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
Hospital and civil aviation workers have been severely impacted by COVID-19. While hospitals are on the frontline when it comes to fighting this global pandemic, civil aviation is experiencing the most challenging crisis ever encountered in the sector. This study explores how social dialogue and collective bargaining are playing a role in the way both sectors are adapting to the pandemic. What kind of changes have been introduced, either through social dialogue or collective bargaining? Are the changes temporary or permanent?
The report provides an overview of the scale of teleworking before and during the COVID-19 crisis and gives an indication of ‘teleworkability’ across sectors and occupations. Building on previous Eurofound research on remote work, the report investigates the way businesses introduced and supported teleworking during the pandemic, as well as the experience of workers who were working from home during the crisis. The report also looks at developments in regulations related to telework in Member States and provides a review of stakeholders’ positions.
The COVID-19 pandemic triggered an extraordinary level of provision of social services across the EU. Healthcare and care providers carried much of the burden and, together with essential services, played a crucial role in getting citizens through the crisis. This report explores how public services adapted to the new reality and what role was played by the digital transformation of services. The aim is to contribute to the documentation and analysis of changes in funding, delivery and use of healthcare and social services during the pandemic.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the civil aviation sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the civil aviation sector in the EU Member States.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the textiles and clothing sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the textiles and clothing sector in the EU Member States.
There have always been workers who have worked at different locations, on site with customers or while on the move. Companies have also developed open-plan workspaces to cut costs and foster cooperation. Cloud computing allows workers to access internal data from anywhere, while digitalisation increases the use of automated decision-making and control based on (big) data. This report addresses the extent to which place of work determines job quality.
This report focuses on trends and developments in collective bargaining that were evident from the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It examines potential new strategic approaches and priorities incorporated in negotiation agendas, as well as collective bargaining practices and coordination at sector and company levels in the private sector.
Given that compliance with lockdown measures is a first line of defence against COVID-19, maintaining trust in institutions is vital to ensure a coordinated, comprehensive and effective response to the pandemic. This report investigates developments in institutional and interpersonal trust across time, with a particular emphasis on the COVID-19 pandemic period and its impact. It examines the link between trust and discontent and investigates the effect of multidimensional inequalities as a driver of distrust.
This report analyses how working conditions, job quality and working life outcomes – such as work–life balance, health and well-being, and sustainability of work – changed between February 2020 and spring 2021. Following up on responses to the European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) 2020, it explores the differences between three distinct groups of workers: those teleworking during the COVID-19 pandemic, those who continued to work on their employers' premises as frontline staff, and those who were furloughed or worked reduced hours.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the gas sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound’s study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the gas sector in the EU Member States.