The International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF), with the support of
the European Transport Workers' Federation (ETF) have organised for 5 October
1999 a repeat of the day of action they held in September 1998 (EU9809127F
) under the banner /Fatigue kills/. The aim of the "international road
transport action day", in which over 100,000 drivers worldwide were due to
participate, was to highlight the health hazards to drivers and the general
public of excessively long working hours. The protest was intended to
underline the trade unions' demands for the limitation of working time to a
maximum of 48 hours per week in line with International Labour Organisation
Convention No. 153 on hours of work and rest periods (road transport) ,
through adoption of legislation at national level in each country. In Europe,
unions are demanding the implementation of European Commission proposals 
to legislate to limit working hours in road transport to an average of 48
hours per week (EU9901144F ). Working time negotiations between ETF and
the International Road Transport Union (IRU) had broken down in September
1999 (EU9809127F ).
A new law introducing wide-ranging changes to the rules governing temporary
agency work in Portugal was published at the beginning of September 1999. The
law amends various aspects of the existing legal framework, dating from 1989.
In September 1999, French MP Catherine Génisson submitted a report on
equality between women and men at work, commissioned by the Prime Minister.
The report, entitled "More mixing in the labour market for greater equality
between men and women", advocates various measures to ensure "real equality."
Since 1994, the first stage of reforming and gradually privatising the
federal railway system in Germany has been implemented. This has included the
transformation of the federal railways in eastern and western Germany into a
public company, Deutsche Bahn AG (DB), and its reorganisation into several
divisions free to operate competitively in the transport market under their
own responsibility. On 9 September 1999, DB presented a /Report on personnel
and social issues, 1994-8/ (Personal- und Sozialbericht 1994-8) which
describes important industrial relations and employment developments.
In September 1999, Greece's GSEE trade union confederation presented a
proposal calling for higher unemployment benefits. Despite legislative
provisions that the daily rate of benefit should not fall below two-thirds of
the average level of unskilled workers' wages, it is now worth less than
The Bank of Ireland and Ulster Bank, two of Ireland's largest banks, have
concluded deals with the Irish Bank Officials' Association (IBOA) trade union
on special "Millennium payments" for time worked on Millennium eve, 31
December 1999, and the subsequent weekend. While the payments are largely
aimed at information technology (IT) staff required to monitor the computer
problems associated with the year 2000 "Millennium bug" (whereby some
computers will be unable to deal with the change in date), they will apply to
any non-IT staff who may also be needed. These are the among first agreements
of significance to be negotiated in the Republic in advance of the Millennium
weekend (IE9905279N ).
In August 1999, a new coalition government took office in Luxembourg,
following the general election in June. The change of administration is
unlikely to herald any fundamental change in direction as regards employment
law, though the new government will seek to encourage capital- and
profit-sharing by employees. There will also be a review of civil servants'
Over August and September 1999, trade unions and employers aired their views
on Spain's forthcoming state Budget for 2000. Employers' proposals included a
call for a cut in social security contributions, while employers focused on
issues such as unemployment cover and pension increases. The government has
largely maintained its positions, though apparently some concessions will be
The 1999 annual conference of the UK's Trades Union Congress (TUC) took place
on 13-16 September. The agenda covered a wide range of employment issues and
featured speeches by a number of government ministers including the Prime
Minister, Tony Blair, and the trade and industry secretary Stephen Byers.
In July 1999, during negotiations over the renewal of company agreements at
the Meridiana airline, pilots and flight attendants staged Italy's first
"virtual strike". During the four-hour "virtual strike", the employees worked
as usual but without being paid, while Meridiana undertook to donate the
receipts from the flights involved to humanitarian organisations. However,
this use of such alternative forms of industrial action, as provided for by a
December 1998 agreement for the transport sector, raises a series of
technical problems. In the Meridiana case, the Minister of Transport will
have to issue an arbitration award to define the obligations of the two
sides, particularly as regards the sum to be paid by the company.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.
This report examines the contribution of social and employment services in EU Member States to the inclusion of people with disabilities, specifically in relation to the impact these have on labour market integration – in line with the 2006 UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The report includes a discussion of the costs and benefits of different approaches.
Living and working in Europe, Eurofound’s 2020 yearbook, provides a snapshot of what is happening in the work and lives of Europeans as explored in the Agency’s research activities over the course of 2020. The scope is broad, from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on employment and on people’s well-being to the inequalities in the working conditions of women and men. It also highlights the connections between Eurofound’s work and EU policy priorities in the coming years.
The third round of Eurofound's e-survey, fielded in February and March 2021, sheds light on the social and economic situation of people after nearly a full year of living with COVID-19 restrictions: How are people doing? What is their outlook on life? How has the availability of vaccinations changed their perceptions? This report presents an overview of the main findings and tracks the developments across the 27 EU Member States since the survey was first launched in April 2020.
While the EU is considered to be a global leader in gender equality, it is not yet a reality for millions of Europeans given the different dynamics in the Member States. The EU Gender Equality Strategy 2020–2025 acknowledges the slow speed of progress and outlines key actions to promote gender equality. Have all countries improved their performance? Which countries have been able to dramatically reduce gender inequality? Which countries lag behind?
As part of an annual series on minimum wages, this report summarises the key developments during 2020 and early 2021 with an emphasis on social partners’ roles and views. It looks at how minimum wages were set in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and how minimum wages act as a reference for income support measures. Information from interviews with decision-makers on the process of setting the minimum wage in 2020, along with their assessment of impacts of the proposed EU Directive on adequate minimum wages is also included.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
The European Green Deal features high on Member State agendas. However, there are concerns that the necessary changes to climate policy may have undesirable socioeconomic consequences, such as regressive distributional effects and increased inequality. This report attempts to identify those policies where there is a significant risk involved and aims to provide guidance on how negative distributional risk can be mitigated.
Based on data from the European Company Survey 2019, this policy brief examines the characteristics of innovative companies and explores the types of workplace practices that are significantly associated with establishments' likelihood of introducing innovation. It also investigates differences between workplace practices of innovative and non-innovative companies. Additionally, data gathered through case studies analyse the role of workplace practices in different phases of the innovation process.
This report investigates the convergence of Member States in various dimensions of living conditions. Indicators are drawn from the European Quality of Life Surveys and other surveys. The analysis pays special attention to particular subgroups such as young people and women. The analysis also investigates the key drivers of convergence in living conditions.
As the EU embarks on the transition to a climate-neutral economy, it is crucial to understand the impact of such a transition on production models, employment, work organisation, working conditions, social dialogue and citizens’ lives and living conditions.