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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF), with the support of
    the European Transport Workers' Federation (ETF) have organised for 5 October
    1999 a repeat of the day of action they held in September 1998 (EU9809127F
    [1]) under the banner /Fatigue kills/. The aim of the "international road
    transport action day", in which over 100,000 drivers worldwide were due to
    participate, was to highlight the health hazards to drivers and the general
    public of excessively long working hours. The protest was intended to
    underline the trade unions' demands for the limitation of working time to a
    maximum of 48 hours per week in line with International Labour Organisation
    Convention No. 153 on hours of work and rest periods (road transport) [2],
    through adoption of legislation at national level in each country. In Europe,
    unions are demanding the implementation of European Commission proposals [3]
    to legislate to limit working hours in road transport to an average of 48
    hours per week (EU9901144F [4]). Working time negotiations between ETF and
    the International Road Transport Union (IRU) had broken down in September
    1999 (EU9809127F [5]).


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, French MP Catherine Génisson submitted a report on
    equality between women and men at work, commissioned by the Prime Minister.
    The report, entitled "More mixing in the labour market for greater equality
    between men and women", advocates various measures to ensure "real equality."

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Since 1994, the first stage of reforming and gradually privatising the
    federal railway system in Germany has been implemented. This has included the
    transformation of the federal railways in eastern and western Germany into a
    public company, Deutsche Bahn AG (DB), and its reorganisation into several
    divisions free to operate competitively in the transport market under their
    own responsibility. On 9 September 1999, DB presented a /Report on personnel
    and social issues, 1994-8/ (Personal- und Sozialbericht 1994-8) which
    describes important industrial relations and employment developments.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, Greece's GSEE trade union confederation presented a
    proposal calling for higher unemployment benefits. Despite legislative
    provisions that the daily rate of benefit should not fall below two-thirds of
    the average level of unskilled workers' wages, it is now worth less than

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The Bank of Ireland and Ulster Bank, two of Ireland's largest banks, have
    concluded deals with the Irish Bank Officials' Association (IBOA) trade union
    on special "Millennium payments" for time worked on Millennium eve, 31
    December 1999, and the subsequent weekend. While the payments are largely
    aimed at information technology (IT) staff required to monitor the computer
    problems associated with the year 2000 "Millennium bug" (whereby some
    computers will be unable to deal with the change in date), they will apply to
    any non-IT staff who may also be needed. These are the among first agreements
    of significance to be negotiated in the Republic in advance of the Millennium
    weekend (IE9905279N [1]).


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In August 1999, a new coalition government took office in Luxembourg,
    following the general election in June. The change of administration is
    unlikely to herald any fundamental change in direction as regards employment
    law, though the new government will seek to encourage capital- and
    profit-sharing by employees. There will also be a review of civil servants'

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Over August and September 1999, trade unions and employers aired their views
    on Spain's forthcoming state Budget for 2000. Employers' proposals included a
    call for a cut in social security contributions, while employers focused on
    issues such as unemployment cover and pension increases. The government has
    largely maintained its positions, though apparently some concessions will be

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The 1999 annual conference of the UK's Trades Union Congress (TUC) took place
    on 13-16 September. The agenda covered a wide range of employment issues and
    featured speeches by a number of government ministers including the Prime
    Minister, Tony Blair, and the trade and industry secretary Stephen Byers.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In July 1999, during negotiations over the renewal of company agreements at
    the Meridiana airline, pilots and flight attendants staged Italy's first
    "virtual strike". During the four-hour "virtual strike", the employees worked
    as usual but without being paid, while Meridiana undertook to donate the
    receipts from the flights involved to humanitarian organisations. However,
    this use of such alternative forms of industrial action, as provided for by a
    December 1998 agreement for the transport sector, raises a series of
    technical problems. In the Meridiana case, the Minister of Transport will
    have to issue an arbitration award to define the obligations of the two
    sides, particularly as regards the sum to be paid by the company.


  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications