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  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    A study conducted by the Censis research centre, published in September 1999,
    suggests that Italian employers may be abandoning the idea of traditional,
    full-time open-ended employment contracts. "Atypical" workers represent, at
    present, the only growth area of employment in Italy.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    On 13 October 1999, the European Commission adopted a draft Communication
    (COM (1999) 476 final) [1] to the EU Member States on a new
    anti-discrimination initiative - EQUAL. The initiative aims to combat labour
    market discrimination based on gender, race, ethnic origin, disability, age,
    sexual orientation and low qualifications, and has been launched within the
    framework of the European employment strategy, which is assessed by the
    Commission each year (EU9909187F [2]).


  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    In late October 1999, the Dutch FNV trade union confederation announced a
    demand for a 3% pay increase in forthcoming wage negotiations. FNV's target,
    endorsed by the CNV confederation, met with a chorus of disapproval from its
    affiliated unions, which are seeking higher increases. The unions have been
    under government pressure to reduce wage demands, in the light of tax
    reductions contained in a new fiscal plan. The largest employers'
    association, VNO-NCW, has adopted the same stance.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    In September 1999, France's consultative Economic and Social Council was
    renewed for five years. It elected Jacques Dermagne of the MEDEF employers'
    confederation as its new chair.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    In October 1999, the Ministry of Children and Family Affairs issued a
    proposal to change the Equal Status Act (Likestillingsloven), the 1978
    legislation relating to equal status between the sexes. The proposal, which
    is intended to improve gender equality in Norway, is now being considered by
    the relevant bodies, and they have until spring 2000 to give their opinions.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    The difference between the minimum wage and unemployment benefits can be so
    slight that unemployed workers are not motivated to accept a low-paid job. In
    order to avoid such an "employment trap", the social partners, together with
    the previousDehaene government and the current Verhofstadt administration,
    have looked into the question of how to increase take-home pay for people
    earning low pay. At first, during the most recent round of intersectoral
    negotiations, which led to the conclusion of the 1999-2000 intersectoral
    agreement in December 1998 (BE9901161F [1]), the social partners had
    suggested enhancing the value of the minimum wage through tax relief, by
    granting a monthly tax credit to the targeted group. This solution was
    endorsed by the National Labour Council [2] (Conseil National du
    Travail/Nationale Arbeidsraad) and the Central Economic Council [3] (Conseil
    Central de l'Economie/Centrale Raad voor het Bedrijfsleven). It satisfied
    both the trade union organisations, which refused further reductions of
    social security contributions, and the employers, which refused an increase
    in the minimum wage.


  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    September and October 1999 have been marked by a number of protest actions
    against expenditure cuts in some areas of the Danish public sector. These
    have notably included actions by parents in Copenhagen and some other
    municipalities against cutbacks in the area of daycare for children, and by
    primary school teachers in several municipalities against cutbacks in their
    area, related to the adoption of municipal budgets for 2000. These budgets
    must, by law, be settled by 15 October 1999 and objections could thus occur
    up until this point.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    The results of the 1998 Workplace Employee Relations Survey [1] (WERS 98),
    published in September 1999, show that job security guarantees are
    significantly more widespread in the financial services sector than in almost
    every other part of the economy. Staff in almost 40% of workplaces in
    financial services are covered by a job security or no-compulsory redundancy
    policy. This compares with just 8% of all private sector workplaces, and 21%
    of establishments in the public sector.


  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    The privatisation of the Italian electric utility, Enel, began at the end of
    October 1999. On 30 September 1999, the Ministry of Industry and trade unions
    signed an agreement setting out binding employment and industrial relations
    criteria for the privatisation of the company, which may set an example for
    future privatisations and liberalisation in Italy.

  • Article
    27 Říjen 1999

    On 2-3 September 1999, the European Trade Union Federation - Textiles
    Clothing and Leather (ETUF-TCL) adopted guidelines on collective bargaining
    coordination, in the form of an internal sectoral protocol. The guidelines
    constitute the latest step towards the promotion of social dialogue and the
    coordination of collective bargaining policy in the sectors covered by
    ETUF-TCL. European-level social dialogue in these sectors has so far resulted
    in developments such as a code of conduct on minimum human rights at work
    (EU9709150N [1]) and a charter on child labour (EU9810131F [2]).



  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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