Browse publications

Latest publications

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Before Portugal's general election on 10 October 1999, the main political
    parties set out their policies on social, employment and labour issues.
    Themes such as employment creation, training and equal opportunities were
    highlighted in nearly all party programmes.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, after 20 months of bargaining, trade unions and employers
    in Spain's savings banks sector have still been unable to reach a new
    collective agreement.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Privatisation and the competitive tendering of municipal services have been
    important issues on the political agenda during the general election campaign
    in spring 1999, and especially in the municipal government election campaign
    in September 1999. The political parties of the right have stressed increased
    use of competitive tendering, and a handbook on the issue was published by
    the Conservative Party (Høyre) prior to the elections.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    On 14 July 1999, ministers at the Department for Education and Employment
    published their response to proposals [1] made by the Equal Opportunities
    Commission (EOC) for a new Sex Equality Act to replace the UK's current sex
    equality legislation (UK9901175N [2]). While announcing action in a number of
    areas, including some changes to existing legislation, education and
    employment secretary David Blunkett said that the government "does not
    believe that major legislative change at this stage is the most effective way
    of bringing about the changes that are needed".


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, the Confederation of Danish Industries (Dansk Industri,
    DI) held a series of meetings to highlight the wish of Danish industrial
    enterprises to institute working time flexibility in order to enable
    employees to work more or less than the standard 37 hours per week at certain
    times of the year. During the spring 1998 collective bargaining round in
    industry, employers prioritised improved possibilities to institute more
    flexible working hours in companies, and succeeded in realising this demand.
    The new collective agreement made it possible to average out the 37-hour week
    over a 52-week reference period (DK9803158F [1]). In practice, this means
    that the enterprises with large seasonal variations in demand are able to let
    their employees work more hours in the peak season and fewer during the rest
    of the year. However, the agreement made the introduction of such
    arrangements dependent on a local agreement between management and employees.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Over the summer and autumn of 1999, the privatisation process of Portugal's
    TAP airline has continued, with debate over future developments among the
    trade unions and the conclusion of a new agreement for pilots, which includes
    employee share ownership.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In August 1999, the board of the Norwegian oil company Statoil submitted a
    report on the future organisation and ownership structure of Statoil and on
    the state's "direct financial interest" (Statens direkte økonomiske
    engasjement, SDØE) in petroleum operations. The report recommends a partial
    privatisation of Statoil, and that all or a major part of SDØE's assets are
    transferred to Statoil. Statoil is a 100% state-owned oil company established
    in 1972, which operates on a commercial basis.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    At the beginning of September 1999, the National Labour Market Board
    (Arbetsmarknadsstyrelsen, AMS) issued statistics revealing that some 318,000
    people were unemployed at the end of August 1999 - 7% of the labour force or
    5.7% of the population between the ages of 16 and 64 years. The August figure
    is 56,000 down on the July level, and almost 17,000 lower than a year
    previously (unemployment always falls after the summer, due to more people
    finding work and due to people transferring to various forms of education and
    training). The AMS statistics are based on material collected monthly from
    job centres across Sweden.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In a survey by the Confederation of British Industry (CBI), published on 13
    September 1999 and coinciding with the start of the annual conference of the
    Trades Union Congress (UK9909128N [1]), 85% of firms questioned thought that
    the administrative burden caused by employment legislation has increased over
    the past year, 17% believing that it had "increased a lot". The impact of the
    EU working time Directive is reported to be "causing easily the most



  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications