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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    With the private sector's major industrial dispute of spring 1998 in mind
    (DK9805168F [1]), the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions
    (Landsorganisationen i Danmark, LO) and the Danish Employers' Confederation
    (Dansk Arbejdsgiverforening, DA), have decided to make joint arrangements for
    the 2000 collective bargaining round, in order to avoid a repetition of the
    conflict. The two confederations have thus entered a framework "agreement
    laying down rules for decentralised (ie sector level) bargaining within the
    DA/LO area". The so-called "climate agreement", which was presented on 14
    September 1999, seeks to maintain the right of the two confederations'
    individual member organisations to conduct decentralised negotiations, while
    at the same time committing DA and LO to work resolutely towards a settlement
    and to try to avoid a collapse of negotiations.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The Norwegian United Federation of Trade Unions (Fellesforbundet) held its
    third national convention on 18-23 September 1999. Fellesforbundet is
    Norway's second largest trade union, with nearly 160,000 members in the
    metalworking, building, paper, agricultural and textiles industries. At the
    top of the agenda was the issue of international coordination of collective
    bargaining, with an emphasis on European coordination (TN9907201S [1]).


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In 9 September 1999, the European Commission issued the draft 1999 Joint
    Employment Report [1] and the draft Employment Guidelinesfor 2000 [2]. The
    former charts the progress made by different Member States in the
    implementation of the 1999 Employment Guidelines [3] (EU9810130F [4]) and the
    impact of these measures on the Community's overall employment performance,
    and when finalised will be submitted by the Commission and the Council of
    Ministers to the European Council meeting in Helsinki in December 1999. The
    latter draw on these findings to make recommendations on priorities for EU
    and Member State employment policies in the coming year. In addition, the
    Commission proposed that the Council of Ministers make a series of
    recommendations to individual Member States on the implementation of their
    employment policies. The aim is both to emphasise the policy areas where
    Member States need to take further action, and to suggest indicators for the
    monitoring of any resulting improvements in the labour market situation.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The board of directors of the Finnish-Swedish forestry products (wood, paper
    etc) group Stora Enso decided in April 1999 to establish a stock option
    programme for some employees. The final details of the programme were
    presented in August 1999, and it has been revealed that it covers about 200
    "key employees", that is managers and other senior staff, out of a total
    workforce of some 40,000. The participants in the programme have been
    guaranteed seven-year options that may be exercised from 15 July 2002. The
    options are so-called "synthetic options" that can be exercised against cash.
    The price is EUR 11.75 per share and the options are not transferable and
    expire if the employee leaves the company.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, the European Commission's review of Member States'
    employment policies drew attention to Belgium's low rate of employment among
    workers aged over 55. This view has been supported by the FEB/VBO employers'
    organisation, but challenged by the FGTB/ABVV trade union confederation.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In 1998, working time was a major topic of debate among Spain's social
    partners. However, statistics on 1998's collective bargaining on working
    hours, published by the Economic and Social Council in summer 1999, reveal no
    great surprises and a few contradictory tendencies.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    A ruling by the municipal court of Oslo on 18 August 1999 stipulates that the
    practice of closed shop is not prohibited by domestic Norwegian law, and only
    partially prohibited by the European human rights convention (ECHR). Three
    international human rights declarations were incorporated into the Norwegian
    legal framework, by means of a human rights Act in May 1999, among them the
    ECHR (no9812104f [1]). In the case filed against the Norwegian People's Aid
    (Norsk Folkehjelp), an aid organisation connected to the labour movement, by
    a former employee, the issues considered were the legality of temporary
    employment contracts, unfair dismissal and the legality of contractual closed
    shop clauses. The plaintiff recovered judgement for the first two claims, and
    as such was rewarded damages, but failed in the latter claim concerning
    contractual closed shop arrangements.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    A recent study by the Dutch consultants EIM (based on data provided by the
    social partner organisations) found that there are currently over 1 million
    individuals working in the European hairdressing sector, in over 155,000
    salons. The nature of companies in the sector varies significantly, ranging
    from large high-street chains to small - often family-run - undertakings
    operated from private homes. The study found that European citizens visited
    hairdressers approximately eight or nine times per year, with some
    significant differences between countries, not only in the number of visits,
    but also in the average amount spent per visit. The share of part-time
    employment in this sector is relatively high and a number of countries have
    high levels of staff turnover. Trade unions are particularly concerned about
    low wages in the sector, while employers are more likely to raise the issue
    of high labour costs as a result of wage and tax burdens.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    A conflict at the Magna Auteca automotive components manufacturer has led to
    debate over the appropriateness of works councils in Austria. The concern
    currently has no works council and a dispute with trade unions over the issue
    came to a head recently An employee who at a staff meeting in December 1998
    made it known that she favoured the establishment of a works council was
    dismissed in February 1999. Supported by the Union of Metal, Mining, and
    Energy Workers (Gewerkschaft Metall-Bergbau-Energie, GMBE) she has been
    alleging that the two events are connected - which would make her dismissal
    illegal - and has sued the company for reinstatement. The case is currently
    before the courts (AT9907157N [1]), though the verdict will not be returned
    until spring 2000. Magna management states that the dismissal occurred
    because of conflicts between the worker - who until May 1998 was an elected
    "spokesperson" within Magna's internal system of employee representation -
    and a department head, in which the other employees took the side of the
    latter. Meanwhile the case has turned into a fierce conflict between Magna
    and GMBE, which has led to further court action for libel. GMBE at one point
    stated that it would form an international front against Magna, in which it
    intended to enlist trade unions in Canada, the USA, the Czech Republic, the
    UK and Germany. In late August 1999, works councils around Austria were asked
    to write letters to newspapers denouncing Magna and its actions, a move which
    was quickly exposed by Magna.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Negotiations between the Electricians' Union (Elektrikerförbundet, SEF) and
    the Swedish Electrical Contractors' Association (Elektriska
    Installatörsorganisationen, EIO) over a new collective agreement broke down
    for the second time on 22 September 1999. On 23 September, the trade union
    relaunched a ban on overtime work, on employing new electricians and on the
    lending of electricians between different companies. Industrial action had
    first started on 9 September, but were suspended a week later when it seemed
    that that parties had found a mutually acceptable platform for the


  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications

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