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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The Netherlands' 1996 Working Time Act granted hospitals until 1 January 1999
    to meet its requirements. In summer 1999, the health and safety inspectorate
    drew up an official report on nine hospitals that had still not properly
    arranged their schedules in line with the Act. The long working weeks of
    physicians' assistants raised special concern, partly due to the fact that
    their schedules are modelled on specialists' working weeks. Occupational
    disability amongst this category has risen dramatically over recent years,
    particularly due to emotional problems resulting from excessive on-the-job
    pressure. Preventive measures, including a more normal working week, are now
    under consideration.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In autumn 1999, a law revising the Labour Procedural Code has been approved
    by Portugal's Council of Ministers and now awaits affirmation by the
    President of the Republic and official publication. The upcoming changes in
    procedures for court cases on labour and employment issues involves a
    considerable broadening of trade unions' abilities to act in such cases.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The way now seems to be clear for the creation of Union Network International
    (UNI), bringing together four existing International Trade Secretariats: the
    International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical
    Employees (FIET); the Communications International (CI); the Media and
    Entertainment International (MEI); and the International Graphical Federation
    (IGF). The new "super-union" would bring together up to 800 unions with over
    15 million members from more than 140 countries around the globe in the
    rapidly converging fields of new technology, communications and services.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In Germany, collective agreements are directly binding only for the members
    of the trade union and the members of the employers' association (or the
    individual company) signing the agreement. By means of an official procedure
    called an "order imposing extension" (Allgemeinverbindlicherklärung),
    however, the applicability of an existing collective agreement can be
    extended to include employees and employers not bound by the agreement. Such
    a generally applicable agreement then has the same direct and mandatory force
    for these employees and employers as it has for the employment relationships
    already bound by the agreement by virtue of membership of a signatory
    organisation. The rationale behind this incorporation of non-union members
    and non-organised employers is that otherwise there could be a situation
    where many employees were not covered by any collective agreement, especially
    in sectors such as the building industry or retail trade with a large number
    of small enterprises whose owners are not members of any association.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In early September 1999, the General Confederation of Greek Labour (GSEE)
    presented its positions on pensions. The trade unions downplay the importance
    of demographic trends, taken alone, and stress the importance of economic
    policy and renewal of the labour force.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    While legislation outlawing discrimination on the grounds of gender and
    marital status in relation to pay [1] and other aspects of employment was
    introduced in Ireland in the 1970s, primarily as a response to EU Directives,
    until recently there has been little legislative provision in relation to
    other forms of discrimination. The enactment of the Employment Equality Act
    1998 has changed this situation dramatically. This legislation, which had
    been in the pipeline for a number of years, comes into force in October 1999.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The debate on the level of minimum pensions in Spain has been prominent
    during summer 1999. Pressure from trade unions and others to increase these
    pensions has been mounting against a background of some 3 million pensioners
    living below the poverty line. The issue is also important in the context of
    the forthcoming general election in spring 2000.

  • CAR
    27 Září 1999

    Comparative Study [1]
    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [2] and should be read in conjunction with it.


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    On 20 July 1999, the government decided to finance the training of up to
    4,000 young people, if they cannot find training places with employers in
    1999-2000. This is the same allocation as for 1998-9 (AT9803175N [1]), when
    3,600 young people were placed - 2,100 in 10-month training courses and 1,500
    in three-year "apprenticeship-foundation" courses. Training course
    participants must have a ninth-grade school-leaving diploma (the ninth grade
    is around 15 years of age) and receive about half the regular apprentice's
    remuneration, while foundation course participants have not usually completed
    the ninth grade and receive three-quarters of the normal apprentice's



  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in two rounds – in April and in July 2020. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications