On 13 October 1999, the National Union of Teachers (Lärarnas Riksförbund,
LR) finished drawing up its demands for the coming pay negotiations. The
claims are the same as those agreed by the second, larger teachers'
organisation, the Teachers' Union (Lärarförbundet, LF), a week before.
The national minimum wage, introduced in April 1999 (UK9904196F ), has
"not had a significantly adverse effect on the UK economy," according to
evidence submitted by the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) to the Low
Pay Commission. The UK's principal employers' organisation believes that the
"downside risks" of the national minimum wage have been "contained", due to
the "prudent level" at which it was set. The CBI remains opposed to the
indexation of the national minimum wage, and argues that any proposed
increase should be considered in the light of economic conditions.
John Larsen, the chair of the Cartel of Building, Construction and
Woodworkers' Unions (Bygge-, Anlægs- og Trækartellet, Bat-kartellet) -
affiliated to the Danish Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisationen i
Danmark, LO) - has sharply criticised the Ministry of Labour's proposal, made
at the end of July 1999, for new rules on the posting of workers. The
proposal (/Udkast til forslag til lov om udstationering af lønmodtagere/)
seeks to transpose into Danish law the EU Directive concerning the posting of
workers in the framework of the provision of services (96/71/EC) . The
basic principle of the Directive is that a basic core of working conditions
and pay provisions in effect in a Member State should be applicable both to
workers from that state, and those from other EU countries posted to work
there. The core rules include matters such as working time, holidays, minimum
pay rates, health and safety and equality.
On 27 September 1999, at a joint press conference, the Fritz Verzetnitsch
president of the Austrian Trade Union Federation (Österreichischer
Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) and Heinz Fischer, the first president of the
Austrian parliament and a high-ranking representative of the Social
Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ), announced
that the ÖGB-led "Aktion Fairness" campaign would be pursued in parliament.
This programme is aimed at harmonising the treatment in employment law of
blue- and white-collar workers: the legal protection given to the two
categories differs in areas such as compensation during sick leave and
regulations governing dismissal. A parliamentary initiative on this issue is
to be one of the SPÖ's first activities in parliament following the October
In 1998, Finland's SAK trade union confederation launched a project to
promote the ability of its members and their families to cope in the
information society, offering members an opportunity to buy a cheap computer
package. The project has proved a success, with 44% of SAK members now
stating that they use a computers. In October 1999, the confederation decided
to continue the campaign.
In September 1999, a study was published on the subject of the significance
of pay for increased effectiveness and productivity in Swedish municipalities
and rural districts. The survey was ordered by the municipal employers'
organisation, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities (Svenska
Kommunförbundet, Kommunförbundet) and carried out by the National Institute
of Working Life (Arbetslivsinstitutet, ALI). Of 4,700 employees, managers and
politicians on municipal executive boards surveyed in spring 1999, some 80%
responded. Sweden is divided into 289 municipalities and rural districts
(kommuner). In November 1998, there were 738,000 persons employed by the
organisations represented by Kommunförbundet, three out of four of whom work
in public services such as medical provision, geriatric care and education.
A new centralised incomes policy agreement seems unlikely to materialise in
Finland, after the board of the SAK trade union confederation stated on 27
September 1999 that the preconditions for such an agreement are lacking. This
was because 10 SAK affiliates announced that they wanted a sector-level
bargaining round, in order to address sector-specific problems (such as
outsourcing) that have accumulated under previous centralised agreements. The
employers, on the other hand, see no need for this.
On 19 October 1999, after six weeks of industrial action (SE9908186N ), a
new collective agreement for the taxi cab sector was signed between the
Swedish Road Transport Employers' Association (Biltrafikens
Arbetsgivarförbund, BA) and the Swedish Transport Workers' Union (Svenska
Transportarbetareförbundet, Transport). The agreement gives all those
drivers, telephone operators at taxi companies and limousine chauffeurs with
a fixed salary a pay rise of SEK 500 per month.
At the end of September 1999, a study was published examining the
significance of labour market and employment conditions for workers'
willingness to criticise their working environment. Two researchers at the
National Institute of Working Life (Arbetslivsinstitutet, ALI), professor
Gunnar Aronsson and Klas Gustafsson, surveyed, with the support of Statistics
Sweden (Statistiska Centralbyrån), some 3,800 individuals. The study
indicates, among other findings, that employees in the public sector are not
better off in terms of freedom of speech than workers in the private sector.
The tendency is rather in the opposite direction.
A pay agreement for 60,000 building workers was concluded on 11 October 1999
by the employers' organisation, the Swedish Construction Federation
(Byggentreprenörerna), and the Building Workers' Union (Svenska
Byggnadsarbetareförbundet, Byggnads). The agreement provides for a pay rise
of 3%, which is the current norm among most Swedish pay agreements expiring
on 31 March 2001. The new construction agreement will expire on the same date
and is hence valid for 18 months.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, launched in April 2020, with five rounds completed at different stages during 2020, 2021 and 2022. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
Eurofound's representativeness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.