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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    From 10 to 17 September 1999, the Austrian Trade Union Federation
    (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) organised a week of action to
    underline its demand for a harmonisation of the legal position of wage
    earners and salary earners (AT9906153N [1]). Legal distinctions between the
    two categories persist in areas such as compensation during sick leave and
    regulations governing dismissal. About 200 events were scheduled in the week
    of action. The opening event took place in a square in Vienna and included
    speeches and a pantomime. It was preceded by 6,000 faxes sent to the Austrian
    Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ), asking it to
    give up its resistance to harmonisation. In other areas, information
    hand-outs and homing pigeons were used in the actions. The public spaces
    around provincial WKÖ headquarters were targeted for activities while others
    took place in companies, without disrupting production.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Finland's current two-year national incomes policy agreement expires in
    January 2000. The AKAVA trade union confederation, which represents
    professional staff, announced in September 1999 that it is seeking a new
    wide-ranging, two-year incomes policy solution which will strengthen the
    Finnish economy, promote employment and "coping" at work, and safeguard the
    positive development in employees' purchasing power of recent years.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In the first six months of 1999, collective bargaining progressed well in
    Spain, according to figures from the CC.OO trade union confederation, though
    greater success has been achieved in revising agreements than in reaching new
    ones. Wage moderation has prevailed, and the agreements contain more clauses
    on employment and on shorter working hours, though the reduction is moderate.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    By making state funding for working time reductions contingent upon a company
    agreement signed by majority trade unions or approval by a majority of the
    employees, France's draft bill for a second law on the 35-hour week - issued
    in summer 1999 - has brought the issue of unions' representative status to
    the fore. Unions are split over the law's provisions on this issue.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    A governmental committee chaired by special commissioner Hans Stark, a former
    chief judge in the Labour Court, has been reviewing certain parts of the Act
    concerning Equality between Men and Women (jämställdhetslagen, /1991:
    433/). The review has primarily been conducted in order to achieve
    harmonisation with EC equality law, and should also been seen in conjunction
    with the three new Acts forbidding discrimination at work - covering
    discrimination on grounds of ethnic origin, sexual orientation and disability
    - adopted in March 1999 (SE9903148F [1]). The issues that have been
    considered by the committee include the nature of the ban on discrimination
    set out in the Act, damages for victims of discrimination, wage surveys and
    issues related to work evaluation.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The European Commission believes that, in order for social protection to be
    sustainable and progress into the next century, a clear strategy needs to be
    implemented by Member States, with whom responsibility for their respective
    social protection systems ultimately lies. However, in a new Communication
    entitled A concerted strategy for modernising social protection(COM (1999)
    347) [1], issued on 14 July 1999, the Commission also recognises the
    importance of developing a close dialogue between Member States and EU
    institutions on the future of social protection systems. The Communication
    follows up the 1997 Communication


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In an unusual move, the first collective agreement of the 1999-2000
    bargaining round covers about 50,000 salaried employees in crafts and trades,
    excluding metalworking and the construction and timber sectors. From 1
    January 2000, their minimum salaries will, on average, rise by 1.6%. The
    lowest full-time annual gross salary will then be ATS 161,980. Actual
    salaries may rise by less, since their increase is not specified in the
    agreement. The deal was concluded between the Union of Salaried Employees
    (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, GPA) and 30 trades associations of the
    Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ).

  • CAR
    27 Září 1999

    Comparative Study [1]
    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [2] and should be read in conjunction with it.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, the Finnish Metalworkers' Union announced its aim of
    achieving a new incomes policy agreement to succeed the current national
    deal, which expires in January 2000. The union has threatened a general
    strike, if necessary, in the event that sector-specific problems in the
    forestry and chemical industries, which form an obstacle to reaching an
    overall national agreement, cannot be resolved.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Historically, the German Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei
    Deutschlands, SPD) and the German socialist trade unions, as opposed to the
    Christian and liberal unions, have the same roots in the labour movement of
    the second half of the 19th century. Since then, the Social Democrats and the
    trade unions have maintained close links.


  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

Forthcoming publications