Publications

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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In the first six months of 1999, collective bargaining progressed well in
    Spain, according to figures from the CC.OO trade union confederation, though
    greater success has been achieved in revising agreements than in reaching new
    ones. Wage moderation has prevailed, and the agreements contain more clauses
    on employment and on shorter working hours, though the reduction is moderate.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    A governmental committee chaired by special commissioner Hans Stark, a former
    chief judge in the Labour Court, has been reviewing certain parts of the Act
    concerning Equality between Men and Women (jämställdhetslagen, /1991:
    433/). The review has primarily been conducted in order to achieve
    harmonisation with EC equality law, and should also been seen in conjunction
    with the three new Acts forbidding discrimination at work - covering
    discrimination on grounds of ethnic origin, sexual orientation and disability
    - adopted in March 1999 (SE9903148F [1]). The issues that have been
    considered by the committee include the nature of the ban on discrimination
    set out in the Act, damages for victims of discrimination, wage surveys and
    issues related to work evaluation.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/three-new-anti-discrimination-acts-approved-by-parliament

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The European Commission believes that, in order for social protection to be
    sustainable and progress into the next century, a clear strategy needs to be
    implemented by Member States, with whom responsibility for their respective
    social protection systems ultimately lies. However, in a new Communication
    entitled A concerted strategy for modernising social protection(COM (1999)
    347) [1], issued on 14 July 1999, the Commission also recognises the
    importance of developing a close dialogue between Member States and EU
    institutions on the future of social protection systems. The Communication
    follows up the 1997 Communication

    [1] http://europa.eu.int/comm/employment_social/soc-prot/social/com99-347/com99-347_en.pdf

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In an unusual move, the first collective agreement of the 1999-2000
    bargaining round covers about 50,000 salaried employees in crafts and trades,
    excluding metalworking and the construction and timber sectors. From 1
    January 2000, their minimum salaries will, on average, rise by 1.6%. The
    lowest full-time annual gross salary will then be ATS 161,980. Actual
    salaries may rise by less, since their increase is not specified in the
    agreement. The deal was concluded between the Union of Salaried Employees
    (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, GPA) and 30 trades associations of the
    Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ).

  • CAR
    27 Září 1999

    Comparative Study [1]
    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [2] and should be read in conjunction with it.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/erm/comparative-information/posted-workers-and-the-implementation-of-the-directive
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/sites/default/files/ef_files/eiro/1999/09/word/tn9909q.doc

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, the Finnish Metalworkers' Union announced its aim of
    achieving a new incomes policy agreement to succeed the current national
    deal, which expires in January 2000. The union has threatened a general
    strike, if necessary, in the event that sector-specific problems in the
    forestry and chemical industries, which form an obstacle to reaching an
    overall national agreement, cannot be resolved.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    Historically, the German Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei
    Deutschlands, SPD) and the German socialist trade unions, as opposed to the
    Christian and liberal unions, have the same roots in the labour movement of
    the second half of the 19th century. Since then, the Social Democrats and the
    trade unions have maintained close links.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    As Greece endured a heatwave during August 1999, the GSEE trade union
    confederation issued guidance on the measures which must be taken to combat
    heat exhaustion among workers, while the construction workers' union issued
    its own special recommendations.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    A new paper from the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU), which maps out
    "new ways" for trade unions to deal with challenges posed by the new
    millennium, suggests that even if the social partners fail to agree a
    centralised agreement to replace the current three-year Partnership 2000 [1]
    (P2000) national agreement (IE9702103F [2]), "partnership" remains a viable
    alternative to adversarialism. The paper, entitled /Challenges facing unions
    and Irish society in the new millennium/, was unveiled at the ICTU's
    two-yearly conference which took place in Killarney on 6-8 July 1999
    (IE9907285N [3]).

    [1] http://www.irlgov.ie/taoiseach/publication/p2000/default.htm
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/social-partners-agree-three-year-national-programme
    [3] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/ictu-conference-sets-scene-for-talks-on-new-deal

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Norwegian government appointed new members to the Technical Calculating
    Committee on Income Settlements (Teknisk Beregningsutvalg for
    Inntektsoppgjørene, TBU) on 25 June 1999, an event which saw the inclusion
    of additional representatives from social partner organisations. The TBU is a
    body which works out a common analytical basis for wage settlements by, among
    other things, estimating wage growth and the wage "carry-over" in different
    sectors. The committee also provides evaluations of issues such as
    developments in real income and national competitiveness. The committee does
    not, however, comment on the coming wage settlements.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications