Publications

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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The reduction in the level of unemployment in France over the past two years
    accelerated during July 1999. This development has fuelled government
    optimism, but trade unions and employers' organisations were more varied in
    their reactions.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The Netherlands' 1996 Working Time Act granted hospitals until 1 January 1999
    to meet its requirements. In summer 1999, the health and safety inspectorate
    drew up an official report on nine hospitals that had still not properly
    arranged their schedules in line with the Act. The long working weeks of
    physicians' assistants raised special concern, partly due to the fact that
    their schedules are modelled on specialists' working weeks. Occupational
    disability amongst this category has risen dramatically over recent years,
    particularly due to emotional problems resulting from excessive on-the-job
    pressure. Preventive measures, including a more normal working week, are now
    under consideration.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The way now seems to be clear for the creation of Union Network International
    (UNI), bringing together four existing International Trade Secretariats: the
    International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical
    Employees (FIET); the Communications International (CI); the Media and
    Entertainment International (MEI); and the International Graphical Federation
    (IGF). The new "super-union" would bring together up to 800 unions with over
    15 million members from more than 140 countries around the globe in the
    rapidly converging fields of new technology, communications and services.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In autumn 1999, a law revising the Labour Procedural Code has been approved
    by Portugal's Council of Ministers and now awaits affirmation by the
    President of the Republic and official publication. The upcoming changes in
    procedures for court cases on labour and employment issues involves a
    considerable broadening of trade unions' abilities to act in such cases.

  • CAR
    27 Září 1999

    Comparative Study [1]
    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [2] and should be read in conjunction with it.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/erm/comparative-information/posted-workers-and-the-implementation-of-the-directive
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/sites/default/files/ef_files/eiro/1999/09/word/tn9909q.doc

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In July 1999, as part of an investigation into the employment and industrial
    relations implications for the UK of EU Economic and Monetary Union (EMU),
    and specifically the single currency, the House of Commons employment
    subcommittee heard evidence from senior management representatives of two
    leading manufacturing companies in the UK - Unilever and Vauxhall Motors.
    Following a meeting with the governor and deputy governor of the Bank of
    England in May, which explored the macroeconomic implications of EMU, the
    Members of Parliament (MP s) on the subcommittee were keen to discuss the
    practical implications for firms in the UK. The witnesses invited to give
    evidence were Bruce Warman, director of personnel at GM Vauxhall Motors UK,
    Richard Greenhalgh, chair of Unilever-UK Ltd, and Michael Samuel, UK national
    finance director of Unilever plc.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, the closure was announced of Op Computer, an important
    Italian information technology company, created two years previously from a
    division of Olivetti. The courts decided not to grant any further reprieves
    to the company's management and declared the firm bankrupt. Workers then
    occupied the premises in protest.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The debate on the level of minimum pensions in Spain has been prominent
    during summer 1999. Pressure from trade unions and others to increase these
    pensions has been mounting against a background of some 3 million pensioners
    living below the poverty line. The issue is also important in the context of
    the forthcoming general election in spring 2000.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In Germany, collective agreements are directly binding only for the members
    of the trade union and the members of the employers' association (or the
    individual company) signing the agreement. By means of an official procedure
    called an "order imposing extension" (Allgemeinverbindlicherklärung),
    however, the applicability of an existing collective agreement can be
    extended to include employees and employers not bound by the agreement. Such
    a generally applicable agreement then has the same direct and mandatory force
    for these employees and employers as it has for the employment relationships
    already bound by the agreement by virtue of membership of a signatory
    organisation. The rationale behind this incorporation of non-union members
    and non-organised employers is that otherwise there could be a situation
    where many employees were not covered by any collective agreement, especially
    in sectors such as the building industry or retail trade with a large number
    of small enterprises whose owners are not members of any association.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Surveys

    The European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2003, with the latest edition in 2016. It examines both the objective circumstances of people's lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. It covers issues around employment, income, education, housing, family, health and work–life balance. It also looks at subjective topics, such as people's levels of happiness and life satisfaction, and perceptions of the quality of society.

  • European Jobs Monitor

    This series brings together publications and other outputs of the European Jobs Monitor (EJM), which tracks structural change in European labour markets. The EJM analyses shifts in the employment structure in the EU in terms of occupation and sector and gives a qualitative assessment of these shifts using various proxies of job quality – wages, skill-levels, etc.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2016

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2016, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2015

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2015, the sixth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 1996

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 1996, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2001

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2001, which was an extension of the EWCS 2000 to cover the then 12 acceding and candidate countries. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2000

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2000, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Company Survey 2004

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the first edition of the survey carried out in 2004–2005 under the name European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2009

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2009, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • European Company Survey 2013

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2013, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Establishment Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.

Forthcoming publications