A conflict at the Magna Auteca automotive components manufacturer has led to
debate over the appropriateness of works councils in Austria. The concern
currently has no works council and a dispute with trade unions over the issue
came to a head recently An employee who at a staff meeting in December 1998
made it known that she favoured the establishment of a works council was
dismissed in February 1999. Supported by the Union of Metal, Mining, and
Energy Workers (Gewerkschaft Metall-Bergbau-Energie, GMBE) she has been
alleging that the two events are connected - which would make her dismissal
illegal - and has sued the company for reinstatement. The case is currently
before the courts (AT9907157N ), though the verdict will not be returned
until spring 2000. Magna management states that the dismissal occurred
because of conflicts between the worker - who until May 1998 was an elected
"spokesperson" within Magna's internal system of employee representation -
and a department head, in which the other employees took the side of the
latter. Meanwhile the case has turned into a fierce conflict between Magna
and GMBE, which has led to further court action for libel. GMBE at one point
stated that it would form an international front against Magna, in which it
intended to enlist trade unions in Canada, the USA, the Czech Republic, the
UK and Germany. In late August 1999, works councils around Austria were asked
to write letters to newspapers denouncing Magna and its actions, a move which
was quickly exposed by Magna.
In September 1999, the views of Finland's social partners over a possible new
national incomes policy agreement were being sounded out. The willingness to
conclude a new incomes policy deal may have been strengthened by the report
of a tripartite fact-finding commission on the practical implementation of
the last two incomes policy agreements, which finds that purchasing power has
grown considerably faster than envisaged when the agreements were signed.
In early August 1999, a shop steward for the Belgian General Federation of
Labour (Fédération Générale du Travail de Belgique/Algemeen Belgisch
Vakverbond, FGTB/ABVV) was made redundant by Carnoy, a manufacturer of metal
pipes based in Wondelgem near Ghent, for "pressing reasons". Workers promptly
launched strike action, with official recognition by the three trade unions
represented at the company. The administrative staff did not participate in
the strike, and were prevented from accessing the site by flying pickets.
Since 1998, systems for jointly resolving labour conflicts out of court
created by the social partners have progressed greatly in Spain, helping
promote a framework of industrial relations founded less on the courts and
more on collective autonomy. As well as the SIMA national joint
dispute-resolution body, by autumn 1999, all but one of Spain's 17 autonomous
communities had their own regional body.
During 1999, seven companies in the Ericsson telecommunications group became
covered by an agreement concluded by the parent company with the Union for
Technical and Clerical Employees in Industry (Svenska
Industritjänstemannaförbundet, SIF), the Association of Graduated Engineers
(Sveriges Civilingenjörsförbund, CF) and the Association of Managerial
Staff (Ledarna). The agreement contains provisions on six months of extra
parental leave pay for employees who stay at home with a new baby or a small
1999 is the United Nations International Year of Older Persons  and in
acknowledgement of this, the European Commission published in May a
Communication entitled Towards a Europe for all ages - promoting prosperity
and intergenerational solidarity(COM(1999) 221 final) . It details the
demographic, social and economic effects of ageing and proposes strategies
intending to ensure that an effective policy is in place to support the
ageing population. The aim of the Communication is to stimulate debate
between and with Member States.
From 10 to 17 September 1999, the Austrian Trade Union Federation
(Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB) organised a week of action to
underline its demand for a harmonisation of the legal position of wage
earners and salary earners (AT9906153N ). Legal distinctions between the
two categories persist in areas such as compensation during sick leave and
regulations governing dismissal. About 200 events were scheduled in the week
of action. The opening event took place in a square in Vienna and included
speeches and a pantomime. It was preceded by 6,000 faxes sent to the Austrian
Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ), asking it to
give up its resistance to harmonisation. In other areas, information
hand-outs and homing pigeons were used in the actions. The public spaces
around provincial WKÖ headquarters were targeted for activities while others
took place in companies, without disrupting production.
Finland's current two-year national incomes policy agreement expires in
January 2000. The AKAVA trade union confederation, which represents
professional staff, announced in September 1999 that it is seeking a new
wide-ranging, two-year incomes policy solution which will strengthen the
Finnish economy, promote employment and "coping" at work, and safeguard the
positive development in employees' purchasing power of recent years.
In the first six months of 1999, collective bargaining progressed well in
Spain, according to figures from the CC.OO trade union confederation, though
greater success has been achieved in revising agreements than in reaching new
ones. Wage moderation has prevailed, and the agreements contain more clauses
on employment and on shorter working hours, though the reduction is moderate.
By making state funding for working time reductions contingent upon a company
agreement signed by majority trade unions or approval by a majority of the
employees, France's draft bill for a second law on the 35-hour week - issued
in summer 1999 - has brought the issue of unions' representative status to
the fore. Unions are split over the law's provisions on this issue.
Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.
This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.
The European Jobs Monitor tracks changes in employment structure and contributes to the debate about whether European labour markets are polarising or upgrading. The European Jobs Monitor report in 2021 looks in particular at two dimensions of change in labour supply – increased female participation and population/workforce ageing – to show how they can contribute to an understanding of recent changes in employment structure.
This study presents policy-relevant findings on differential pay rates for men and women at occupational level. Previous research has underlined that the gender pay gap is biggest – and has been slowest to narrow – in well-paid jobs requiring professional qualifications. These are also jobs in which the female worker share is increasing relatively fast. The report maps the extent of the gender pay gap across the job-wage distribution, taking into account the shifting gender composition of specific sectors, occupations and jobs.
While often considered staid, social partner organisations have developed different ways of using technology to communicate with their members, as well as to organise, mobilise and develop both internally, among staff, and externally, vis-à-vis members and the public. This topical update maps current practices in social partner organisations, describes developments in the use of technologies, and outlines the impact on social partner activities and organisation.
What have been the major trends and policy developments regarding digitalisation in Europe? What do we know about the deployment of automation, digitisation and the platform economy? This flagship publication provides an overview of developments in Europe in recent years, as well as mapping the observable or expected effects on employment and working conditions, as well as exploring the implications from a policy perspective.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
The COVID-19 pandemic radically reshaped workplace practices and work organisation across the EU. This report explores changes that occurred as a result of or during the COVID-19 pandemic in areas such as technological transformation, decision-making and remote working. The research sets out to learn from company experiences and measures that have proved critical to keeping businesses running. It aims to inform policymakers, employers and trade unions on how to make businesses, workplaces and workers more resilient in the face of a crisis such as COVID-19.
Following improvements in economic growth and labour market participation after the global financial and economic crisis, the COVID-19 pandemic constitutes a new, unprecedented challenge for the EU. The crisis threatens to pose an existential challenge to the EU’s cohesion and legitimacy. The subject of upward convergence is once again centre stage in the European policy debate. Expanding on work done on this topic in previous years, this flagship report traces developments in economic and social indicators between the economic crisis and the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This report captures the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the quality of life of older citizens, including the impact on their well-being, finances, employment and social inclusion. It explores the effects on care use and reliance on other support. The report analyses policy measures that have been implemented in EU Member States that have proven particularly important for the quality of life of older citizens, for example, measures to support independent living.
This report examines the phenomenon of overtime in the EU, providing a comparative description of how it is regulated in EU Member States. It also assesses how contentious the issue can be and investigates the reasons behind the various disputes and debates. Finally, the report attempts to quantify and characterise the share of overtime for which workers are not paid or compensated. The analysis is based on information collected in EU Member States by the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
As the EU embarks on the transition to a climate-neutral economy, it is crucial to understand the impact of such a transition on production models, employment, work organisation, working conditions, social dialogue and citizens’ lives and living conditions.