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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    France's second bill on the 35-hour week, under parliamentary discussion in
    autumn 1999, will exclude many managerial and professional staff from the
    regulations on the length of working time applicable to all employees. Their
    maximum working time will be expressed as 217 days per year, with few
    restrictions related to the number of hours worked. These measures have
    provoked heated responses from the trade unions, which suggests that a lively
    debate will ensue over this issue in parliament.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    From January 2000, insurance for work-related accidents and occupational
    illnesses will be obligatory for Portugal's numerous self-employed workers,
    many of whom work in the construction sector where the level of accidents is
    the highest. The new legislation is one more step towards defining the status
    of self-employed workers, but the trade unions see it as a means of applying
    pressure to clarify the status of workers in situations of bogus

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The first half of 1999 saw a substantial increase in the use of temporary
    agency work in Italy. Projections estimate that by the end of the year the
    number of temporary agency workers will stand at 200,000. Agency work is on
    the agenda of the social dialogue between the government and social partners
    in autumn 1999.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In a report published in September 1999, the Union of Industrial and
    Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE) outlines its vision for social
    Europe beyond 2000. The document, entitled "Releasing Europe's employment
    potential - companies' views on European social policy beyond 2000,"
    identifies unemployment as Europe's most fundamental economic and social
    problem and sees competitiveness as one of the key solutions to economic and
    social challenges, arguing that this should therefore be the underlying
    concern throughout EU policy. UNICE states that, in order to translate growth
    into employment, Europe needs to address the issues of economic globalisation
    more effectively. It is argued that the high unemployment rates in Europe are
    caused not by a lack of demand, but by structural problems.

  • CAR
    27 Září 1999

    Comparative Study [1]
    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [2] and should be read in conjunction with it.


  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Over 1999, a committee of experts set up in February by the Dutch Minister of
    Social Affairs and Employment has been examining possible reform of the law
    governing dismissal. Although reform of dismissals law has been attempted
    frequently in the past, the prevailing law has remained largely unchanged
    over the last half century. Nonetheless, the law's application in practice
    has changed.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    On 20 April 1999, the first senate of the German Federal Labour Court
    (Bundesarbeitsgericht, BAG) issued a judgment (/1 ABR 72/98/) which
    acknowledged the right of trade unions to bring court cases against employers
    which they accuse of operating a company arrangement that contravenes a
    collective agreement in force. In July 1999, the BAG published a
    comprehensive written statement in which it sets out the reasons for its
    judgment. According to the statement, trade unions have the right to ask that
    employers cease an unlawful company arrangement in order to safeguard the
    unions' constitutional right to freedom of association [1]


  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union (SIPTU), Ireland's
    largest trade union, is in the process of establishing its own internal
    employee forum which is separate from the traditional industrial relations
    processes within the union. The role of SIPTU's staff representative council,
    which deals with industrial relations issues such as pay and conditions, is
    to remain unchanged.


  • Minimum wages in the EU

    This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.  

  • COVID-19

    Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.

  • European Working Conditions Surveys

    The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.

  • European Restructuring Monitor

    The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.

  • Challenges and prospects in the EU

    Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.

  • European Company Survey 2019

    Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance. 

  • Sectoral social dialogue

    Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.

  • National social partners and policymaking

    This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).

  • New forms of employment

    This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.

  • European Company Surveys

    The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.

Forthcoming publications