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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In an unusual move, the first collective agreement of the 1999-2000
    bargaining round covers about 50,000 salaried employees in crafts and trades,
    excluding metalworking and the construction and timber sectors. From 1
    January 2000, their minimum salaries will, on average, rise by 1.6%. The
    lowest full-time annual gross salary will then be ATS 161,980. Actual
    salaries may rise by less, since their increase is not specified in the
    agreement. The deal was concluded between the Union of Salaried Employees
    (Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, GPA) and 30 trades associations of the
    Austrian Chamber of the Economy (Wirtschaftskammer Österreich, WKÖ).

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    A governmental committee chaired by special commissioner Hans Stark, a former
    chief judge in the Labour Court, has been reviewing certain parts of the Act
    concerning Equality between Men and Women (jämställdhetslagen, /1991:
    433/). The review has primarily been conducted in order to achieve
    harmonisation with EC equality law, and should also been seen in conjunction
    with the three new Acts forbidding discrimination at work - covering
    discrimination on grounds of ethnic origin, sexual orientation and disability
    - adopted in March 1999 (SE9903148F [1]). The issues that have been
    considered by the committee include the nature of the ban on discrimination
    set out in the Act, damages for victims of discrimination, wage surveys and
    issues related to work evaluation.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/articles/undefined/three-new-anti-discrimination-acts-approved-by-parliament

  • CAR
    27 Září 1999

    Comparative Study [1]
    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [2] and should be read in conjunction with it.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/erm/comparative-information/posted-workers-and-the-implementation-of-the-directive
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/sites/default/files/ef_files/eiro/1999/09/word/tn9909q.doc

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In September 1999, the Finnish Metalworkers' Union announced its aim of
    achieving a new incomes policy agreement to succeed the current national
    deal, which expires in January 2000. The union has threatened a general
    strike, if necessary, in the event that sector-specific problems in the
    forestry and chemical industries, which form an obstacle to reaching an
    overall national agreement, cannot be resolved.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    France's second bill on the 35-hour week, under parliamentary discussion in
    autumn 1999, will exclude many managerial and professional staff from the
    regulations on the length of working time applicable to all employees. Their
    maximum working time will be expressed as 217 days per year, with few
    restrictions related to the number of hours worked. These measures have
    provoked heated responses from the trade unions, which suggests that a lively
    debate will ensue over this issue in parliament.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    From January 2000, insurance for work-related accidents and occupational
    illnesses will be obligatory for Portugal's numerous self-employed workers,
    many of whom work in the construction sector where the level of accidents is
    the highest. The new legislation is one more step towards defining the status
    of self-employed workers, but the trade unions see it as a means of applying
    pressure to clarify the status of workers in situations of bogus
    self-employment.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In a report published in September 1999, the Union of Industrial and
    Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE) outlines its vision for social
    Europe beyond 2000. The document, entitled "Releasing Europe's employment
    potential - companies' views on European social policy beyond 2000,"
    identifies unemployment as Europe's most fundamental economic and social
    problem and sees competitiveness as one of the key solutions to economic and
    social challenges, arguing that this should therefore be the underlying
    concern throughout EU policy. UNICE states that, in order to translate growth
    into employment, Europe needs to address the issues of economic globalisation
    more effectively. It is argued that the high unemployment rates in Europe are
    caused not by a lack of demand, but by structural problems.

  • CAR
    27 Září 1999

    Comparative Study [1]
    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [2] and should be read in conjunction with it.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/erm/comparative-information/posted-workers-and-the-implementation-of-the-directive
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/sites/default/files/ef_files/eiro/1999/09/word/tn9909q.doc

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The first half of 1999 saw a substantial increase in the use of temporary
    agency work in Italy. Projections estimate that by the end of the year the
    number of temporary agency workers will stand at 200,000. Agency work is on
    the agenda of the social dialogue between the government and social partners
    in autumn 1999.

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications