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  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    France's second bill on the 35-hour week, under parliamentary discussion in
    autumn 1999, will exclude many managerial and professional staff from the
    regulations on the length of working time applicable to all employees. Their
    maximum working time will be expressed as 217 days per year, with few
    restrictions related to the number of hours worked. These measures have
    provoked heated responses from the trade unions, which suggests that a lively
    debate will ensue over this issue in parliament.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    Over 1999, a committee of experts set up in February by the Dutch Minister of
    Social Affairs and Employment has been examining possible reform of the law
    governing dismissal. Although reform of dismissals law has been attempted
    frequently in the past, the prevailing law has remained largely unchanged
    over the last half century. Nonetheless, the law's application in practice
    has changed.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    In a report published in September 1999, the Union of Industrial and
    Employers' Confederations of Europe (UNICE) outlines its vision for social
    Europe beyond 2000. The document, entitled "Releasing Europe's employment
    potential - companies' views on European social policy beyond 2000,"
    identifies unemployment as Europe's most fundamental economic and social
    problem and sees competitiveness as one of the key solutions to economic and
    social challenges, arguing that this should therefore be the underlying
    concern throughout EU policy. UNICE states that, in order to translate growth
    into employment, Europe needs to address the issues of economic globalisation
    more effectively. It is argued that the high unemployment rates in Europe are
    caused not by a lack of demand, but by structural problems.

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    From January 2000, insurance for work-related accidents and occupational
    illnesses will be obligatory for Portugal's numerous self-employed workers,
    many of whom work in the construction sector where the level of accidents is
    the highest. The new legislation is one more step towards defining the status
    of self-employed workers, but the trade unions see it as a means of applying
    pressure to clarify the status of workers in situations of bogus
    self-employment.

  • CAR
    27 Září 1999

    Comparative Study [1]
    The comparative study was compiled on the basis of individual national
    reports submitted by EIRO's national centres. The text of each of these
    national reports is available below in Word format. The reports have not been
    edited or approved by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living
    and Working Conditions. The national reports were drawn up in response to a
    questionnaire [2] and should be read in conjunction with it.

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/observatories/eurwork/erm/comparative-information/posted-workers-and-the-implementation-of-the-directive
    [2] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/sites/default/files/ef_files/eiro/1999/09/word/tn9909q.doc

  • Article
    27 Září 1999

    The first half of 1999 saw a substantial increase in the use of temporary
    agency work in Italy. Projections estimate that by the end of the year the
    number of temporary agency workers will stand at 200,000. Agency work is on
    the agenda of the social dialogue between the government and social partners
    in autumn 1999.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    The Services, Industrial, Professional and Technical Union (SIPTU), Ireland's
    largest trade union, is in the process of establishing its own internal
    employee forum which is separate from the traditional industrial relations
    processes within the union. The role of SIPTU's staff representative council,
    which deals with industrial relations issues such as pay and conditions, is
    to remain unchanged.

  • Article
    27 Srpen 1999

    On 20 April 1999, the first senate of the German Federal Labour Court
    (Bundesarbeitsgericht, BAG) issued a judgment (/1 ABR 72/98/) which
    acknowledged the right of trade unions to bring court cases against employers
    which they accuse of operating a company arrangement that contravenes a
    collective agreement in force. In July 1999, the BAG published a
    comprehensive written statement in which it sets out the reasons for its
    judgment. According to the statement, trade unions have the right to ask that
    employers cease an unlawful company arrangement in order to safeguard the
    unions' constitutional right to freedom of association [1]
    (Koalitionsfreiheit).

    [1] www.eurofound.europa.eu/ef/efemiredictionary/freedom-of-association-right-to-organize-0

Series

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2003

    Eurofound’s European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2003, the first edition of the survey.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2007

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2007, the second edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003.

  • European Quality of Life Survey 2012

    Eurofound's European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) examines both the objective circumstances of European citizens' lives and how they feel about those circumstances and their lives in general. This series consists of outputs from the EQLS 2012, the third edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2003. 

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2005

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2005, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • European Working Conditions Survey 2010

    Eurofound’s European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) paints a wide-ranging picture of Europe at work across countries, occupations, sectors and age groups. This series consists of findings from the EWCS 2010, the fifth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 1990.

  • Manufacturing employment outlook

    This publication series explores scenarios for the future of manufacturing. The employment implications (number of jobs by sector, occupation, wage profile, and task content) under various possible scenarios are examined. The scenarios focus on various possible developments in global trade and energy policies and technological progress and run to 2030.

Forthcoming publications