in late July 1999, the French cabinet approved the second bill on the 35-hour
week, which follows up the first law on the subject adopted in June 1998. The
new bill establishes a two-year "adjustment period", in particular for the
question of overtime payments.
A meeting organised in July 1999 by the Economic and Social Council and the
Commission for Equality in Employment and in the Workplace provided an
opportunity to assess the progress of equal opportunities for women and men
in Portugal. Various initiatives have been taken under the Global Plan for
equality, and the National Action Plan for employment incorporates equality
measures. However, considerable occupational and pay discrimination persists.
The 1998 strike statistics, published in summer 1999 by the Austrian Trade
Union Federation (Österreichischer Gewerkschaftsbund, ÖGB), shows the year
to have been free of strikes, including unauthorised strikes. After 1994 and
1996, this was the third year in the 1990s without strike activity, while in
1995 the figure was near nil (AT9707124N ). In 1997, there were 153,000
hours, or 1,913 days, of strike action in the public service when internal
revenue and customs staff struck twice in June, involving about 25,800
participants (AT9706117F )- there were thus about 0.3 minutes of strike
action per Austrian employee.
The chair of the Finnish Metalworkers' Union, affiliated to the SAK
confederation, announced in August 1999 that a deal guaranteeing a steady
rise in real wages could be sufficient for the country's next national
incomes policy agreement. At the same time, however, some other SAK
affiliates, such as the Paper Workers' Union, have stressed the importance of
solving sector-specific problems.
Sport is a growth industry in the Netherlands, and has attracted increasing
attention from the government and trade unions. Furthermore, the Flexibility
and Security Act, drastically changing Dutch law on employment contracts,
which came into force in January 1999, sowed confusion among employers and
employees in the sports sector. Recent developments include a collective
agreement for professional footballers, which came into force on 1 July 1999.
In July 1999, the UIMM employers' organisation and the main trade unions -
except CGT - concluded an agreement on a new form of early retirement for
workers employed by French automobile manufacturers and their subsidiaries.
The agreement is contingent on public financing of part of the cost of the
pensions, a question which the government is to decide on in autumn 1999.
In September 1999, the Institute of Labour of Greece's GSEE and the ADEDY
trade union confederations issues its first /Annual economic and employment
outlook/. Such reports have long been produced by employers, the central bank
and the Ministry of National Economy. The report finds that Greece is very
likely to meet the nominal convergence conditions for EMU membership on 1
January 2001, while real convergence is being achieved thanks to an effective
policy of demand management. However, despite rapid economic and employment
growth, the unemployment rate is rising.
In July 1999, in preparation for the general election to be held in October,
Portugal's social partner organisations drew up their assessments of the
outgoing legislature and made their demands to the political parties for the
next four-year period.
The Danish trade union movement lost another union when a substantial
majority of the members of the Danish Union of Graphical Workers (Grafisk
Forbund) - an affiliate of the Danish Federation of Trade Unions,
(Landorganisationen i Danmark, LO) - voted to dissolve the organisation in a
ballot held on 9 June 1999. There was an unusually large turnout for a trade
union ballot, with 82% of the union's 23,000 members voting, and of these 62%
voted to dissolve the union, which had existed in its current form for only
six years. General secretaryTom Durbing and the union leadership had
recommended this course of action, and the general secretary was relieved at
the clear decision.
In August 1999, Italy's main transport workers' trade unions signed an
agreement with the Atac-Cotral group, which is responsible for public
transport services in Rome and Lazio. The most innovative aspect of the
agreement concerns the use of 400 temporary agency workers for a four-month
period starting from September 1999.
This series reports on developments in minimum wage rates across the EU, including how they are set and how they have developed over time in nominal and real terms. The series explores where there are statutory minimum wages or collectively agreed minimum wages in the Member States, as well as minimum wage coverage rates by gender.
Eurofound’s work on COVID-19 examines the far-reaching socioeconomic implications of the pandemic across Europe as they continue to impact living and working conditions. A key element of the research is the e-survey, conducted in three rounds – in April and July 2020 and in March 2021. This is complemented by the inclusion of research into the ongoing effects of the pandemic in much of Eurofound’s other areas of work.
The European Working Conditions Survey (EWCS) launched in 1990 and is carried out every five years, with the latest edition in 2015. It provides an overview of trends in working conditions and quality of employment for the last 30 years. It covers issues such as employment status, working time duration and organisation, work organisation, learning and training, physical and psychosocial risk factors, health and safety, work–life balance, worker participation, earnings and financial security, work and health, and most recently also the future of work.
The European Restructuring Monitor has reported on the employment impact of large-scale business restructuring since 2002. This series includes its restructuring-related databases (events, support instruments and legislation) as well as case studies and publications.
Eurofound’s Flagship report series 'Challenges and prospects in the EU' comprise research reports that contain the key results of multiannual research activities and incorporate findings from different related research projects. Flagship reports are the major output of each of Eurofound’s strategic areas of intervention and have as their objective to contribute to current policy debates.
Eurofound’s European Company Survey (ECS) maps and analyses company policies and practices which can have an impact on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, as well as the development of social dialogue in companies. This series consists of outputs from the ECS 2019, the fourth edition of the survey. The survey was first carried out in 2004–2005 as the European Survey on Working Time and Work-Life Balance.
Eurofound's representativness studies are designed to allow the European Commission to identify the ‘management and labour’ whom it must consult under article 154 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU). This series consists of studies of the representativeness of employer and worker organisations in various sectors.
This series reports on and updates latest information on the involvement of national social partners in policymaking. The series analyses the involvement of national social partners in the implementation of policy reforms within the framework of social dialogue practices, including their involvement in elaborating the National Reform Programmes (NRPs).
This series reports on the new forms of employment emerging across Europe that are driven by societal, economic and technological developments and are different from traditional standard or non-standard employment in a number of ways. This series explores what characterises these new employment forms and what implications they have for working conditions and the labour market.
The European Company Survey (ECS) is carried out every four to five years since its inception in 2004–2005, with the latest edition in 2019. The survey is designed to provide information on workplace practices to develop and evaluate socioeconomic policy in the EU. It covers issues around work organisation, working time arrangements and work–life balance, flexibility, workplace innovation, employee involvement, human resource management, social dialogue, and most recently also skills use, skills strategies and digitalisation.
This joint publication with the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents the findings from complementary research carried out simultaneously by both agencies on the socioeconomic impacts of climate policies and measures. While Eurofound focuses particularly on the distributional effects of these policies based on the experiences of Member States, the EEA analyses scientific research about the monetary and non-monetary social impacts of climate mitigation policies and its outcome in terms of inequalities.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the audiovisual sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the audiovisual sector in the EU Member States.
This report examines the phenomenon of overtime in the EU, providing a comparative description of how it is regulated in EU Member States. It also assesses how contentious the issue can be and investigates the reasons behind the various disputes and debates. Finally, the report attempts to quantify and characterise the share of overtime for which workers are not paid or compensated. The analysis is based on information collected in EU Member States by the Network of Eurofound Correspondents.
This policy brief uses the data from the European Company Survey 2019 to examine the workplace practices of export-oriented companies and to analyse how these practices relate to outcomes. It also examines why these companies choose the workplace practices they adopt.
This report addresses the main developments in statutory and collectively agreed working time regulation in 2019 and 2020. It covers several aspects of the duration of working time in the EU, such as information on maximum numbers of working days and weeks, normal working weeks and paid annual leave across the countries and within selected sectors. The report focuses on the education, health, transport, retail and public administration sectors, and provides accounts of major developments in working time regulation as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Building on Eurofound’s previous research on youth, this report examines the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on young people, in particular their economic and social situation, with a focus on employment. It will also estimate how the NEET population – young people not in employment, education or training – has changed in size and composition over the last decade, and how the current crisis might affect this.
This study provides information allowing for an assessment of the representativeness of the actors involved in the European sectoral social dialogue committee for the live performance sector. Their relative representativeness legitimises their right to be consulted, their role and effective participation in the European sectoral social dialogue and their capacity to negotiate agreements. The aim of this Eurofound study on representativeness is to identify the relevant national and European social partner organisations in the live performance sector in the EU Member States.
The European Jobs Monitor tracks changes in employment structure and contributes to the debate about whether European labour markets are polarising or upgrading. The European Jobs Monitor report in 2021 looks in particular at two dimensions of change in labour supply – increased female participation and population/workforce ageing – to show how they can contribute to an understanding of recent changes in employment structure.
This report analyses and compares the industrial relations landscape in a number of sectors and activities that form a public service cluster. The report draws on Eurofound’s recent representativeness studies investigating the following sectors: education, human health, central government administration and local and regional government sector (including social services).
This report explores the impact of the use of digital technologies on work organisation and job quality, as well as the role of social dialogue and employee involvement in the digitisation process. The three technologies analysed are the Internet of Things, 3D printing, and virtual and augmented reality. The report draws on the views of experts and policy stakeholders and includes insights from 10 case studies of European establishments that have deployed one or more of the three digital technologies.